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MACQUARIE UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE ASSESSMENT GUIDE WMGM102 Principles of Management T6 2016 ASSESSMENT 1: IN CLASS TEST Total Marks: 20 Weighting: 5% Due: The test will be in class, Lesson 2:1 Duration: 30 minutes
To evaluate your understanding of the course material a 30 minute in class test will be held in lesson 2:1. It will provide you with early feedback on your performance in this unit. Please remember to bring 2B pencils, an eraser, sharpener if appropriate and your One-ID. This ID number must be correctly recorded on the multiple choice answer sheet.
This is an individual task. The test will consist of 20 Multiple Choice Questions. All questions will have equal value and marks will not be deducted for incorrect responses.
|The test will cover the following material: LESSON 1:1||Chapter 1:The exceptional manager: what to do, how you do it Chapter 2: Management theory: essential background for the successful manager|
|LESSON 1:2||Chapter 3: The manager’s changing work environment|
It is recommended that you revise the lecture slides, your notes and the relevant chapters from the textbook, for lessons 1:1 and 1:2. Please remember that the textbook is an extremely important resource and is an investment, and not a “cost”.
Marks will be posted to iLearn for the following lesson. Review of the test and individual results will be provided during Lesson 3:1, via PowerPoint material. ASSESSMENT 2: ESSAY Total Marks: 35 Weighting: 35% Due: Monday of Week 4 at 1 pm Duration, Length: 1200 words
This is an individual task.
All students must submit their essays electronically through Turnitin using the link on iLearn, and in hard copy to your teacher in class, at the beginning of lesson 4.1. Hard copies must be identical to the electronic version submitted. The Soft copy version will be marked online using Grademark system. You may make several submissions via Turnitin to check your work for plagiarism and make adjustments accordingly up until the due date. If you submit again after the due date your submission will be counted as a late submission and penalties will apply (see below). Please note that for a first time submission the similarity report will be available immediately but for any subsequent submissions it will take 24 hours for the similarity report to be generated in Turnitin. If you cannot access or view your submission via Turnitin in iLearn, you have not correctly submitted your work and will need to do so prior to the due date. (If you require assistance submitting through Turnitin, you may lodge an OneHelp Ticket or refer to the IT help page.) No extensions will be granted, unless an application for the Disruption to Studies is made and approved. Late essays must also be submitted through Turnitin and a hard copy should be submitted to your teacher in class. It is the online submission which will be marked. Late submissions will be penalised at 20% per day up to 4 days (weekend inclusive). If a student submits an assessment task 5 or more days a after the due date without grounds for special consideration (See Disruptions to Studies Policy) a record or submission will be made but the student will receive zero marks for the assessment task.
Student are required to keep a copy of all items submitted or completed for the purpose of assessment or evaluation until the end of the grade appeal period. This includes any notes taken during the process of responding to the essay question.
“With recent changes in the work environment in response to increasingly competitive demands for higher performance, and elevated organizational needs for their employees to cope with constant change in the external environment … employee empowerment has received noticeable attention in organizational research and practice” (Cheong, Spain, Yammarino & Yun, 2016)
Question: Critically discuss worker empowerment by leaders and its outcome.
The following questions must be answered:
Length and presentation: The maximum essay length is 1200 words, including intext citations, but excluding the reference list. Include the word count at the end of the essay and before the reference list. Use 1.5 line spacing, 2.5 cm margins on top, bottom and on each side, Times New Roman font size 12. You are required to use APA Referencing throughout your essay. Turnitin similarity should aim for 5% similarity or lower. All essays must cite a minimum of five (5) academic/scholarly and peer reviewed articles. This is NOT including the 2 compulsory articles (With the 2 compulsory articles, you should have a minimum of 7 articles. With the recommended articles, you should have 9 articles). You are to attach a MUIC cover sheet including your Turnitin receipt and lecturer name, and include the marking rubric when handing in the essay for marking. Do not use colour printing, formatting templates, plastic, fancy or bound covers when submitting your report. Do not include an executive summary, content section, abstract, footnotes or endnotes. Do not use headings and subheadings. Turnitin will check your assignment against over a billion internet articles, academic articles and previously submitted assignments in order to identify any cases which should be checked for plagiarism. Note that the penalties for plagiarism can be severe and a case of plagiarism which is detected by other means will still be brought, even if the Turnitin program fails to detect it. So you must ensure that you submit only your own work, with all sources properly acknowledged. NB: Complete instructions for submission via iLearn and ‘Turnitin’ will be provided in the form of an iLearn announcement close to the due date. Essay Structure: Please ensure that you answer the following structure in your Writing style: The essay should be written in formal academic narrative style. The essay will be evaluated for discriminatory language, clarity of expression and overall presentation including grammar, spelling and punctuation. You must NOT use bullet points; do not use casual language (or bracketed comments). Do NOT use headings as they reduce the integration and flow of your points. Essay must be fully and appropriately referenced using APA intext citations. Substantial marks will be deducted for inadequate or incorrect referencing. Aim for at least 2 in-text citations per 100 words. Feedback and marking criteria: Marks and feedback, using a feedback sheet, will be given in class two weeks after submission. Please review the marking rubric attached to this guide. The marking criteria are:
(All essays must cite at least five (5) academic sources. )
5. Clarity of expression and grammar
The core idea of “Worker Empowerment” is to provide greater responsibilities to the employees of an organization according to their specific areas of importance. Such responsibility and autonomy empower them to make decisions that influence a certain part of their work roles. Just like the corporate world, as mentioned in (Nagda, 2011), the concept of worker empowerment has got much relevance in case of social work and other related fields. There are several approaches of worker empowerment which give a better understanding of the subject. The policies and practices of an organization are restructured in socio-structural approach of worker empowerment. The psychological perspective deals with the intrinsic functions of employee encouragement such as extension of help in enhancing their competence and effectiveness. On the other hand, there is another approach known as critical approach which says that increased empowerment lowers the control over the workers which is not beneficial for the organization.
It has been proved that worker empowerment leads to greater engagement in the organizational activities which positively influences productivity. That is why employee participation can be considered as one of the top driving factors of productivity which has many benefits for the organization (Huq, Aghazadeh, Najjar, & Hafeznezami, 2010). It has also been observed that for a better quality organization, employee participation helps in increasing the motivation level of the employees. Motivated and satisfied employees work for the implementation of the activities leading to organizational effectiveness. Another important driving factor of worker empowerment is legal regulation. As explained in (Faundez, 2009), in an informal economy, the workers can be brought under a legal regulation as per international standards. This empowers them and motivates them to work further for the growth of the organization. Therefore, it can be inferred that extension of legal rights should be a key concern for the government and organizational leadership. Proactive and committed employees are key requirements of a growing organization. Empowering leadership and “a higher order empowerment factor” are considered as key areas of consideration in (Albrecht & Andreetta, 2011). Transformational leadership can help in worker empowerment by providing them proper guidance and authority. Moreover, an empowering factor such as greater autonomy, authority as well as self-determination can take the issue of worker empowerment to greater heights. With liberalization & globalization of economy, the need of horizontal work structures within an organization has increased. Therefore, participation of each and every employee has become crucial for organizational development. Moreover, the limitations of vertical hierarchy open new doors for enhancing ownership and autonomy of the employees. That is why; the importance of innovative leadership has been emphasized in (Stanley, 2005) more than an administration focused managers in modern business environment.
There are various styles of leadership and as per the individual characteristics of each of the styles, they influence differently in worker empowerment. Similarly, varied personality types of employees also play crucial role in the process. Because, as demonstrated in (Murari, 2015), some leadership traits are beneficial for the empowerment of certain class of employees while some are not. But it is essential to explore a generalized view of the empowering leadership to get a clear idea about its actual influence on worker empowerment. The first point explained in (Sharma & Kirkman) while defining empowering leadership is the delegation of authorities to a group of employees or workers. When a worker gets full authority of his/her own work, it contributes significantly for worker empowerment goals of the entire organization. Similarly, it has also been observed that the leadership should encourage workers in decision making and enjoying the responsibility and autonomy of his/her own work. Regular exchange of information with the workers and inviting constructive feedbacks from them also satisfy the worker empowerment goals of the leadership. The role of empowering leadership is also explained in (Lorinkova, Pearsall & Sims, 2013) by emphasizing on the importance of collaboration and coordination in organizational activities. Another role of the leadership for worker empowerment is extending the “psychological ownership” of the task to the subordinates. This acts as a powerful medium of recognition for the workers and they feel empowered while performing their assigned responsibilities. Another aspect of the role of leadership in influencing worker empowerment has been described in (Chen, Kirkman, Kanfer, Allen, & Rosen, 2007). As per the observation, there are two levels of analysis associated with the process of worker empowerment. The common empowerment goal depends on individual and shared perceptions. Therefore, two dimensional individual and team level analysis is necessary. The empowering leadership pays importance to both the ways and empowers the workers as per their individual expectations as well as team based perceptions. Thus, the role of leadership is immense in influencing worker empowerment.
In modern business environment, the leadership empowerment goals play significant role in organizational decision making. As explained in (Lorinkova, Pearsall & Sims, 2013), directive leadership works in variation to the principles of empowering leadership. But, it has certain benefits which distinguishes it from the rest. According to the observation, directive leadership or empowering leadership involves vertical approach where the leaders provide clear directives and instructions to the subordinates. The main advantage of this style of leadership is quick decision making and resolution of the issues and tasks. The directive leader acts as a monitoring authority that clear the ambiguity and lethargy associated with individual decision making. This can be regarded as a negative side of empowering leadership. On the other hand, the concept of worker empowerment is closely associated with transformational leadership style. This can be regarded as a positive side because transformational leadership provides motivation and enhances the ability of the workers (Kark, Shamir & Chen). But in case of transactional leadership style, the followers are not empowered. Transactional leadership thus only influences the behaviors of the followers. This is a plus point of leadership empowerment. One of the negative aspects of the empowering behavior of the leaders is the negative influence it creates for the followers as mentioned in (Cheong, Spain, Yammarino & Yun, 2016). Such empowering behavior of the leaders causes tension and strain for the workers and this ultimately results in reduced productivity of the organizational activities. It has also been observed that, the leaders should be well aware of the limitations of leadership empowerment efforts within an organization.
Overall, it can be concluded that the outcomes of empowerment are more desirable. Because, increased worker empowerment enhances the organizational performance to greater heights. This can be easily justified by the fact that the practicality is absent in traditional hierarchical structure where the manager or the leaders are expected to possess all the decision making skills as mentioned in (Sharma & Kirkman). The complexity of work environment and globalization has also increased the relevance of this justification. In the conclusion, we can also state that, if the worker empowerment approach is implemented with due consideration of the individual and team level dynamics as described in (Chen, Kirkman, Kanfer, Allen, & Rosen, 2007), then it can yield better results for the entire organization. Therefore, the outcomes of empowerment are more desirable.
Albrecht, S. L., & Andreetta, M. (2011). The influence of empowering leadership, empowerment and engagement on affective commitment and turnover intentions in community health service workers: Test of a model.Leadership in Health Services, 24(3), 228-237. Chen, G., Kirkman, B. L., Kanfer, R., Allen, D., & Rosen, B. (2007). A multilevel study of leadership, empowerment, and performance in teams.Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), 331. Cheong, M., Spain, S. M., Yammarino, F. J., & Yun, S. (2016). Two faces of empowering leadership: Enabling and burdening. The Leadership Quarterly. Faundez, J. (2009). Empowering workers in the informal economy. Hague Journal on the Rule of Law, 1(1), 156-172. Huq, Z., Aghazadeh, S. M., Najjar, L., & Hafeznezami, S. (2010). Employee and customer involvement: The driving force for Six-Sigma implementation.The Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 11(1), 105. Kark, R., Shamir, B., & Chen, G. (2003). The two faces of transformational leadership: empowerment and dependency. Journal of applied psychology,88(2), 246. Lorinkova, N. M., Pearsall, M. J., & Sims, H. P. (2013). Examining the differential longitudinal performance of directive versus empowering leadership in teams. Academy of Management Journal, 56(2), 573-596. Murari, K. (2015). Impact of Leadership Styles on Employee Empowerment. Partridge Publishing. Nagda, B. A. (1996). A social relationships approach to worker empowerment: Similarities and differences across race and gender. University of Michigan. Sharma, P. N., & Kirkman, B. L. (2015). Leveraging leaders a literature review and future lines of inquiry for empowering leadership research. Group & Organization Management, 40(2), 193-237. Stanley, D. J. (2005). The Impact of Empowered Employees on Corporate Value. Graziadio Business Review, 8(1), . Retrieved from https://gbr.pepperdine.edu/2010/08/empowered-employees/
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