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Due date: 17 MAY 2017
Length: 2500 - 3000 words
Choose ONE option from the following:
Discuss the influence of the military-industrial complex on poverty, security and the environment.
What measures can be taken against global warming? You should examine solutions at a variety of levels, including international, government, corporate and community.
Can global communications technology foster peace, equity and environmental sustainability in the world? (Be sure to discuss its disadvantages, and how these might be overcome).
Institutional Affiliation .................
Global warming is one of the leading problems facing the world today which is significantly influenced by the issue of globalization. Global warming is part of the environmental crisis facing the world today which also includes the loss of biodiversity and linked to carbon dioxide (CO2) which is created by burning fossil fuels. Global warming involves the effects associated with the rising levels of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere which causes "the greenhouse effect" (Casper, 2010). The gases trap heat from solar radiation within the atmosphere which results in increases in the average global surface temperatures. Global warming is often identified as a key threat to the existence of living organisms which creates the need to establish response programs to reduce a number of gasses emitted to the environment. Global warming is associated with globalization since it has influenced the development and rise of industries in both developed and developing countries increasing the rate of gases emitted to the environment. According to Hardy (2003), greenhouse gases represents a natural constituent of the atmosphere and are essential for maintaining habitable conditions; however, the high levels of the gases limits the desired balanced nature of the gasses and have the potential to influence negative outcomes. In this study, the issue of global warming is explored to gain an in-depth understanding of some of the measures taken against global warming as well as the solutions at a variety of levels such as international, government, corporate and community levels.
Global warming is increasingly becoming one of the leading global problems due to the overwhelming evidence on global warming and pressures from vested interests and political conservatives. Global warming impacts life on earth negatively by altering weather patterns, sea levels, environments and the ability to sustain both plant and animal life. Environmentalist further predicts severe impacts on human beings such as increased death rates from the current 150,000 deaths associated with climate change (Haldar, 2011). Global warming alters the weather conditions dramatically as well as threatening the ecosystems and the communities they support as well as influencing geological effects such as melting of ice and snow. Global warming is linked to a variety of influencing factors. One of the leading causes of global warming includes the increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere primarily due to human activities. According to Haldar (2011), CO2 accounts for close to 77 percent of the global greenhouse gasses emissions from human activities such as industrialization and burning of fossil fuels for energy need such as oil, coal and natural gas. Land use such as deforestation or forest clearing also tends to influence global warming due to the rise in nitrous oxide from nitrogen-based fertilizers and fossil fuel combustion.
According to Ward (2015), the majority of the human-caused emissions are created by the multinational corporations and governments through industries such as an automobile, oil, aviation and nuclear among others. However, there also exists other factors such as consumerism to globalized neo-liberal capitalism and reliance on growth at different levels. Global warming is also influenced by the lack of appropriate policies and institutions that monitor emissions in different countries leading to detrimental effects on its population and the environment. Some countries such as Australia fail to spend the required budgets on climate change rather spend a significant amount of their country's budget on military rather than climate or environmental protection thus increasing the effects of global warming.
Besides military activities also tend to influence negative environmental outcomes as well as global warming problem. In this regard, global warming is primarily as a result of human activities which translates to negative outcomes. With increased globalization, there is less focus on the environmental impact limiting the ecological destruction protection and sustainability of the environmental justice. Globalization further enhances the ability of multinational organizations to operate in different countries globally further increasing the chances of emissions of different gasses into the atmosphere and the chances of negative outcomes (Casper, 2010).
The effects of global warming are profound and range from adverse effects on human beings to rising temperatures affecting life on earth. Global warming has resulted in increased ice melting and rising temperatures which have negatively affected different species such as the number of Adelie penguins in Antarctica which has significantly reduced. Global warming has also influenced other climatic problem such as floods and droughts which have become more common in different parts of the world. Additionally, it has also influenced the rise in mortality rates due to the increase in diseases associated with ecosystem change. With the increasing global warming rates, the frequency of severe weather conditions continues to be experienced in different parts of the global such as heat waves and storms among others. Countries such as the US have also experienced significant losses owing to severe storms and floods associated with the rise in global warming.
Across the globe, global warming has resulted in a lack of water which is deemed as a leading cause of severe diseases and death. According to Haldar (2011), the global warming results to dirtier air due to the pollution from industries and the automobile industry. The aspect is linked to increased hospital admission rates and death rates due to conditions such as Asthma and other allergies. In this regard, global warming is a key global issue which demands effective approaches to reducing the global emissions. However, the success of the measures taken against global warming is based on a collaborative approach within the international community and aggressiveness in reducing emissions at different levels such as national, local and international levels among others.
Based on the increased level of emissions and negative effects associated with global warming, the majority of the countries and international communities have taken different measures to reduce global warming. Kyoto Protocol provided the basis for the world's greenhouse emitters to reduce emissions as well as set national targets to ensure the goal of reducing emissions is met. The measures have been effective primarily in developed countries and have fostered the development of local policies and plan to mitigate global warming. Besides, the measures taken through the international community collaboration, a lot of the current measures have been done at the national level such as curbing deforestation and boosting renewable energy sources which are common in Australia. Additionally, the majority of the countries have also adopted the cap-and-trade plans in efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit the chances of negative outcomes associated with the condition (Casper, 2010).
Other measures that have been taken by different countries against global warming includes establishing laws and policies that enhance the ability of the regulators set limits on industrial emissions. This has been one of the major steps taken by different countries across the world to demonstrate their commitment to the reduction in the global warming problem. The policies or laws, as well as compliance, ensures that the countries are legally abiding by the international agreements in regards to a climate which promotes the chances of stabilizing the atmosphere. The measures taken have reduced the individual countries emissions by a large percentage such as Brazil and Australia which focused on reducing deforestation and focusing on renewable energy leading to a reduction in emissions by close to 80 percent. Under the Kyoto Protocol, the European Union member states have also demonstrated the commitment to addressing global warming. As one of the regions that account for the largest emission of greenhouse gases, the agreement has influenced a significant drop in the percentage of emissions primarily carbon. EU also establishes policies of providing carbon permits to industry players such as the aviation industry to ensure fewer emissions and compliance with the international law.
The majority of the countries are also turning into better sources of energy that reduce environmental pollution as well as encouraging fuel-efficiency standard cars to reduce the overall rate of emissions from vehicles. One of the key sources of energy that has taken center stage in the reduction of global warming involves the increased dependent on clean and renewable power such as solar power. The new forms of energy reduce the dependence on burning the fossil fuels which are regarded as a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The measures to introduce cleaner energy is a major step in the world's steps towards reducing global warming as well as ensuring the availability of energy-efficient alternatives. Different countries primarily in Africa have developed programs to create the wind and solar power plants in the bid to ensure clean power in their nation's energy mix. However, as much as the countries demonstrate the commitment to cleaner energy, there are higher chances of failure due to lack of funds and support from developed nations. The aspect presents the notion that the success of the global warming measures is dependent on collaboration among the international community irrespective of the countries position (Goldstein, 2009).
Governments have also increased their total funding on environmental initiative rather than the continued spending on the military operation in order to meet the Kyoto Protocol pledges. Countries such as the US are at the forefront in assisting initiatives that are based on ensuring a reduction in carbon emissions in order to achieve a 17 percent reduction in the total carbon emissions in the country by 2020 (Gombatz, 2008). The funding also demonstrates the countries commitments to reducing the greenhouse gas emissions primarily from power plants and factories which significantly influences the global warming problem. A majority of the countries around the world have made significant steps towards reducing their rate of emissions by encouraging industries to have fewer carbon emissions as well as focusing on alternative energy sources. Carbon emissions are deemed as the leading cause of global warming which accounts for the continued focus on carbon emissions to reduce the growing consequences of climate change. However, some of the policies have been ineffective due to non-inclusion of stakeholders at different levels (Casper, 2010).
Countries have better chances of addressing global warming from different levels based on the understanding of the contributing factors such as industrial emissions. However, the success of the solutions at the international, government, corporate and community levels is dependent on the collaboration and availability of resources to withstand the effects. Additionally, there is need to develop science-based solutions to ensure sustainable future and healthy development. Global warming is significantly influenced by globalization, which creates the need to have appropriate policies at the international level. Additionally, some of the key solutions that can be adopted at the international level include collaboration between countries in the world primarily major carbon emitters such as the US and EU member countries. Collaboration is a key aspect that can enhance the success of the global warming solutions globally since it ensures a collective responsibility and commitment between countries in reducing their individual emission rates. Other key solutions at the international level may involve the development of policies or agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol, which ensures the countries establish appropriate ways to reduce emissions in solving global warming. Policies and agreement enhance the member countries commitment to reducing their rate of emissions in order to address global warming (Casper, 2010).
At the international level cooperation can also help in encouraging countries to reduce their overall level of emissions. The international solutions can also involve raising awareness on the negative effects of continued emissions and global warming promoting the chances of the countries reducing their emissions levels. Another key solution that can be adopted at the international level involves funding of programs aimed at reducing carbon emissions as well as providing necessary resources for managing initiatives such as clean energy in different countries. For example, the majority of the countries around the world have established diverse ways of changing their energy sources by incorporating solar and wind energy which presents cleaner sources of energy thus reducing emissions. However, lack of resources and funding serve as a key challenge towards ensuring the success of the programs which creates the need for the international community to provide key resources and funding. As such, the international level provides the basis for ensuring the success of the solutions to global warming (Leroux, 2005).
Global warming can also be addressed at the government level which has a key role in implementing the international policies developed to addressing global warming as well as establishing local regulations or policies to address the problem. Laws and policies on environmental pollution have a key impact on the success of the solutions. Besides, the government should establish regulators to provide monitoring on industries emission rates as well as providing permits for industries. The government has the key responsibility of ensuring a successful reduction in the rate of emissions among industries in the country. In this regard, the level of government commitment determines the success in efforts made to reduce global warming. Governments can establish awareness programs to educate the people as well as existing industries on the need to reduce their rate of emissions to reduce the overall global warming. The government can also provide solutions through establishing programs that focus on cleaner energy such as solar energy. The government solutions also involve supporting community-based programs that are aimed at reducing risk factors to global warming such as deforestation among others. The government can also support the efforts to reducing global warming through providing subsidies to clean energy sector to enhance growth as well as booting the forest cover. The government can also implement carbon trading plan and establish reduced reliance on fossil fuel which influences the rate of emissions. Governments also establish standards that must be followed by the corporations such as the clean power plan to reduce carbon pollution and the consequences of climate change
Solutions to global warming can also be provided at the corporate level based on the fact that major contributors to global warming involve multinational companies operating large industries across the world. Hence, a key solution involves collaborating with the organizations to ensure they use cleaner sources of energy as well as reduce their emissions. The companies that operate the industries should also ensure compliance with regulations to reduce the rate of carbon emissions which is a key contributor to global warming. Besides, the companies can establish alternative means for their production processes as well as ensure continued commitment to reduced emissions. The companies should also ensure performance based on the standards established by the government.
At the community level, some of the key solutions that can be adopted include encouraging the reduction in the rate of environmental pollution as well as educating the community members on the issue of global warming and its effects. Besides, the community level can also involve programs such as reduction in deforestation which also contributes to global warming. The community members also serve as the key players in reporting the pollution problems since the effects are felt more by the community such as increased diseases and death rates. Hence, the community work in collaboration with the government and the companies to ensure a reduction in the rate of pollution to promote positive outcomes.
Conclusively, global warming is a leading global issue that continues to affect the world today. Some of the key contributors to global warming involve increased rates of carbon emissions primarily from burning fossil fuels as well as emissions from industries. Deforestations is also linked to increased global warming. The associated effects of global warming are profound which creates the need to have appropriate policies and programs to address the problems. The response can be done at the international, government and community levels; however, collaboration has a significant effect in ensuring the success of the response programs such as policy establishment and ensuring successful implementation and monitoring.
Casper, J. K. (2010). Changing Ecosystems: Effects of Global Warming. New York: Infobase Pub.
Gombatz, E. G. (2008). Global warming: Causes. San Diego, Calif: Classroom Complete Press.
Goldstein, N. (2009). Global warming. New York: Facts On File.
Hardy, J. T. (2003). Climate change: Causes, effects, and solutions. Chichester, West Sussex, England: J. Wiley.
Haldar, I. (2011). Global warming: The causes and consequences. New Delhi: Mind Melodies.
Leroux, M. (2005). Global warming: Myth or reality : the erring ways of climatology. Berlin: Springer.
Ward, P. L., & hoopla digital. (2015). What really causes global warming?: Greenhouse gases or ozone depletion?. United States: Morgan James Publishing.
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