What are the Four P’s of the Biopsychosocial Model?

What are the Four P’s of the Biopsychosocial Model
June 13, 2022
Author : Keith Morris

Several parameters are used for determining a person's health. Whenever you visit a doctor, the first thing they do is check your vitals - breathing, pulse rate, body temperature, and blood pressure. A person's health can be detected by their physical condition, but it might not always be the case.

Risk factors are connected with an increased risk of developing and progressing a mental health illness, but they are not enough to trigger disease development.

In psychology there, the patients are often physically fine but are going through some psychological condition. A counsellor must assess several aspects of the patient's behavior, health condition, and even their reaction to a social setting. Such is important to learn the core issue behind the symptoms and mental conditions.

A biopsychosocial approach to psychological conditions was developed ages ago. Psychologists John Romano and George Engel developed the first biomedical models for pathophysiology, clinical medicine, and other biological methods to cure mental conditions. The biopsychosocial approach is now used as an important method for understanding disease and its origin in detail.

Let’s learn more about such models with a biopsychosocial model example. Read forth!

Four P’s of the Biopsychosocial Model

What Is the Biopsychosocial Model?

If you still wonder what such models aim at? Who uses them? What are the outcomes? We'll discuss all such questions moving forth. Psychologists around the world use a biopsychosocial model. It is a western medicine and biomedical approach to accessing illness through various lenses.

The biology of health, the psychological condition of the patient, and the influence of society and culture on the patient's condition are accessed to discover its origin and prevalence. Four factors - called the 4 Ps - are accessed in a Biopsychosocial Model to determine how and when the patient developed a certain medical condition. Here are the 4 P:

Predisposing

The factors that make a person vulnerable to a specific condition or disease. The development of the disease/condition may be initiated by certain biological interactions and environmental or psychological conditions.

Precipitating

These are the factors that trigger a person's illness/phobia/condition. The reasons can be an accident, some instances, memory, or behavioral response. Just as we precipitate - shiver or sweat - to let our bodies adjust to a certain temperature. Similarly, certain conditions react to the triggers.

Perpetuating

After an individual has an episode of a behavioral response to the triggers for their mental condition, they may struggle for some time. The illness perpetuates after being established in the person's psychology (or physiology).

Protective factors

The patient's surroundings or environment helps make positive adjustments to their condition/disease are called the protective factors. Such factors also support the patient throughout recovery from a life-threatening illness or an extended recovery period.

Natural intellect, the ability to fight a certain disease, and the ability to be inherently persistent are protective characteristics. Biological variables raise or reduce risks, but they must be thoroughly investigated since they critically influence how quickly a mental condition develops and how effectively a person copes with it.

These are the four P that contribute to a biopsychosocial model. There are certain conditions that, regardless of medical examination and countless tests, stay undetectable. It is because the person's physiology is fine, but the psychological is the one suffering. Such models are useful for helping people with mental conditions.

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How is the Biopsychosocial Model Used in Social Work?

Various social work agencies worldwide know the issues that need to be addressed with an in-depth understanding. The imbalance among the four factors in the biopsychosocial factors, for example, is responsible for developing such disorders. The healthcare models nowadays are more aware of detecting the issue from all angles.

For example, an adolescent with weak self-control (psychological element) may be enticed to consume alcohol anytime possible, which can be described by biopsychosocial evaluation. They might be doing this to 'blend in' with his alcoholic peer group (social component).

Their addiction would almost certainly lead to liver impairment in the future. It is critical for social services to not only research and identify the situation and symptoms- through Biopsychosocial models - which are immediately visible but to also discover any devising that may be actively or passively influencing the problem.

The biopsychosocial model was initially referred to as the bio-psycho-social-cultural model by George Engel. The word was abbreviated to biopsychosocial for ease of usage since culture was a component of the model's social element.

Holistic healthcare institutions, including medical specialists, psychiatrists, and social workers, are becoming very popular nowadays. These combined healthcare systems aid in the problem identification from all angles and, as a result, the therapy that is particularly fit to that specific condition.

Biopsychosocial Model Examples

What Are Some Biopsychosocial Model Examples?

Here are some examples of biopsychosocial models:

Factors contributing to the development of a Phobia

Biopsychosocial Model Examples

Factors contributing to anxiety disorder

Factors contributing to anxiety disorder Examples of Biopsychosocial Model

With such examples, we saw the importance of a biopsychological approach in a biomedical model. As we break down the issue further, societal influences always trigger a condition or maybe the reason for the prevalence of the disease. The primary approach to any illness is to access it physically. But, a holistic approach is a new trend on the rise, and biopsychological models are of absolute importance for such procedures.

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About the Author

Keith Morris

Keith Morris

Keith Morris is a certified nurse who retired as a registered nurse after participating in a WHO campaign in Geneva. He is dedicated to helping students score good grades in their nursing courses and are offered a chance to help the people and establish a better healthcare community across the globe. He works as a nurse at a local clinic with underprivileged children and provides assignment guidance to the students. Reflection writing, aged care, Gibbs reflective cycle, cardiac nursing, pathophysiology, etc. are a few to name from his area of dominance.

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