LISP is the 2nd oldest and high-level programming language after Fortran. It has changed the ways of programming since its initial days and different dialects have been seen over its history. Nowadays, the best-known general Lisp dialects are Scheme and Common Lisp.
Students admitted to programming courses must have the understanding and complete knowledge of LISP programming so that they can comfortably compose their assignments. But, sometimes, LISP assignments become tricky to write because of its Macros, Variables, Data Types, Constants, Loops, Functions and more.
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On this page, our experts offering LISP programming assignment help will provide various details which not only helpful in writing assignments but can be used as a guide for LISP Programming courses. Students finding themselves stuck in writing an academic paper can refer to this guide prepared by LISP programming experts. Let's read further to know more.
Lisp programming language was originated by John McCarthy in the year 1958. He developed this programming language while he was studying at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). It is best suited for Artificial Intelligence programs because of its symbolic information processes. The LISP (Common) was introduced during the 1980s and 1990s while trying to integrate the work of various implementation groups which were successors to Maclisp like NIL (New Implementation of Lisp) and ZetaLisp etc. LISP can be said as a common language prolonged to a particular implementation.
Common Lisp language has expanded and developed over time in terms of supporting paradigms and acquiring features. Now, it is easily get supported by an ANSI standard (ANSI X3.226:1994) which includes the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) features; for example - multi-methods and dynamic class redefinition, etc. Moreover, common LISP comes with various features and few of them are explained below by our LISP programming assignment expert.
In common Lisp, the programs are developed interactively. Users will not find a separate run/ compile or debug cycle in place of this the programs are developed when it runs. In common lisp, the function is created and updated easily and compilation is incremental. While running a program, users can easily inspect the available objects.
Common Lisp is a language designed carefully with a history. It was introduced in the year 1980 and the languages remain the same since but it keeps on changing the metaprogramming capabilities and modality which assures that the program can run on the same language for several years.
Common Lisp language supports the various level of safety, debugging and speed. Users can produce fast codes with CL compilers and the programs can be type annotated. Performance is much better and faster than interpreted languages such as Ruby, Python, SQL, etc.
Common Lisp has updated their programming languages time by time. For example - Multiple dispatch, Method combinations, Meta Object protocol, and Multiple-values.
LISP is a meta-language that follows the approach to solve the problem is to specify idioms (small Domain Specific Languages) which is likely to problem domain as possible, which results in declarative and succinct solutions. Common LISP flexibility provides a bottom-up approach for programming.
LISP implements several programming paradigms that provide closures, first-class functions, and de-structuring, commonly present in functional languages. It comes with CLOS which is a powerful object system. Students experiencing support for other paradigms can be availed at LISP Programming Assignment services where you will be an aid to understand the programming language, their features and more.
LISP expressions are also known as s-expression or symbolic expressions. The symbolic expressions include three valid atoms, objects, strings, and lists. Every symbolic expression is a valid program in LISP. The programs included in LISP run either on a compiled code or an interpreter.
In LISP, an interpreter is used to check the source code in a loop that has been repeated and it is also known as a read-evaluate-print loop (REPL). It can read the program code, measure and print the values of the program.
A SIMPLE PROGRAM
Our Common Lisp programming assignment experts have illustrated an example to write a symbolic expression to calculate the sum of three numbers 7, 9 and 11. To do this, users can type 7, 9 and 11 on an interpreter prompt.
(+ 7 9 11)
And LISP outcome will be:
In case, if a user wants to run the program as a compiled code, then they are required to make a LISP source code file named myprog.lisp and then type the code given below:
(write (+ 7 9 11))
And now, click on the execution button or simply type CTRL+E and the result will be:
LISP - Prefix Notation
While working on LISP, users may have noted that LISP programming uses prefix notation. In the example given above, the + symbol is used as a function name for sum of the numbers.
In prefix notation, operands are written ahead of the operators. For instance, the expression,
a * ( b + c ) / d
will be written as
(/ (* a (+ b c) ) d)
Let's see another example given by our LISP programming assignment help experts. Here, they have written code for converting Fahrenheit temp of 60? to a centigrade scale -
If we present this conversation in mathematical expression, the result will be -
(60 * 9 / 5) + 32
Now, we are required to create a code under the file name main.lisp and write code in it.
(write(+ (* (/ 9 5) 60) 32))
After this, hit the execution button or CTRL+E and the result will be displayed;
Evaluation of LISP Programs
To evaluate LISP programs, there are two parts -
Evaluation Process includes the following steps;
The 'Hello World' Program
People willing to learn a new programming language cannot take off until they know how to greet the world in that particular language. Isn't it?
So, develop a new source code file under the name of main.lisp and then enter the following code:
(write-line "Hello World")
(write-line "I am at 'My Assignment Services'! Learning LISP")
Now, required to press CTRL+E on the execute button and the result will be -
I am at 'My Assignment Services'! Learning LISP
LISP is a language of computer programming which has a long history and parenthesized prefix notation and a distinctive. In LISP or computer science study, the syntax of a programming language is a combination of rules which specify the set of symbols that are taken to be in action as a correct fragment of the language or well-structured document.
Common Building Blocks in LISP
LISP program is made of three common building blocks i.e. atom, string and lists.
Atom can be defined as a string or number of contiguous characters including special characters and numbers as well. Some of the examples are:
The term List can be defined as a sequence of atoms and other lists encircled in parentheses. Few valid examples are -
A string is generally a set of characters entitled in the form of double quotation marks.
For example -
In LISP, users do not require to type variables but data objects are. Our Common Lisp Programming Language assignment help experts categorise data types in the following ways which are Scalar types and Data structure. Number types, symbols, character, etc are the few examples of Scalar Types whereas lists, strings, vector, etc come under Data Structures.
Types Specifiers in LISP Programming Language
Types Specifiers in LISP language is said as a system-defined symbol for data types. Some lists are mentioned below:
Moreover, users can also create their data types with the help of system-defined types. To become a valid type symbol, users are required to define structure type using destruct function.
Example 1 -
Firstly, need to create a new file name as main.lisp for source code and type the below-given codes in it.
Now, press CTRL+E together or click the execute button and the following result is displayed:
In programming languages like LISP, variables are shown by a symbol. The name of the variables is the name of the symbol and accumulated in the cell storage of the symbol. Our LISP programming assignment help experts have explained the two variables types of LISP which are Local variables and Global variables.
Global variables are the permanent values for the LISP system and continue to effect until a new value is determined. These variables are defined as using the defvar construct.
(defvar x 234)
When a user hit the CTRL + E or execute button, LISP generates the following result:
Though here we cannot see any declaration for variables, you can define a value for a symbol with the setq construct.
Let us look at the example:
-> (setq x 10)
The above-given example shows that the value 10 to the variable x. Thus, users can also mention the variables by applying the symbol as an expression.
Local variables can be defined based on a given procedure. The parameters are named as arguments under a function definition which is also called local variables. These variables can be accessed only within the respective function.
The users can also create local variables by using setq construct as we have done for global variables. In addition to this, there are two more constructs named let and prog used to create local variables.
LET construct includes following syntax:
(let ((var1 val1) (var2 val2).. (varn valn)) )
Here, var1, var2 and varn are the name of the variables whereas val1, val2 and valn are the primary values attributed to the concerned variables.
When the LET construct is carried out, each variable gets allotted to a respective value and in the end, the symbolic expression is evaluated.
The PROG Construct includes the lists of local variables in the form of the first argument and is followed by several symbolic expressions or the body of the prog. The prog function performs the list of symbolic expressions and receives the result as NIL unless it comes across a function named RETURN. After this, the argument of the return function is returned and evaluated.
Create a new source code file named main.lisp with following code:
(prog ((x '(a b c))(y '(1 2 3))(z '(p q 10)))
(format t "x = ~a y = ~a z = ~a" x y z))
Now, click CTRL + E or execute button and the following result will be displayed:
x = (A B C) y = (1 2 3) z = (P Q 10)
Apart from these, there are several other things (like Lisp constants, operators, loops, decisions, numbers, arrays, etc) that a student/user must know. In case, if they do not have the knowledge they might get stuck while coding or decoding and My Assignment Services is a renowned LISP programming assignment help service can be the best option. They aid students in numerous ways by offering LISP programming assignment services.
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