This essay aims to critically evaluate the relationship between the environmental and biological influences upon differences in personality. Personality is considered as the combination of behaviour, emotions, and patterns etc that define an individual. The biological perspective on personality emphases on personality characters patent through biology and examine the relations among the personality, DNA, and procedures driving in the brain (Briley & Tucker-Drob, 2014). Many researchers concluded that the personality of an individual change across the whole life span.
The biological factors are determined in terms of brain structure and genes. On the other hand, an environmental factor that influences an individual personality are the life events, culture norms, society, actions of other peoples etc. However, personality change takes place in diverse ways and these changes are uncertain as it may be long term change in personality or short term changes (Fajkowska, 2018). This essay will demonstrate all the aspects of environmental and biological influences upon personality trait. Furthermore, a justifiable conclusion is also provided at the end of the study.
The biological viewpoint on personality highlights the interior physical and hereditary factors that affect personality. Temperament reflects the personality trait which depicts the behaviour of an individual in front of the world. There are two dimensions of the temperament that are comprised of reactivity and self-regulation power of an individual Spiegel, (Leu, Bull & Sih, 2017). Reactivity and self-regulation power of an individual portrays the behaviour of an individual. When environmental factors interact with these traits than the personality of individual shapes. The genes of the different members belong to the identical species have almost same but environment playa a crucial role in the development of personality traits in a human.
Specht et al., (2014) depict that personality traits in an individual change in entire lifespan. The biological and environmental factors have deep linkage with each and both these factors build the personality of an individual. As per this paper, authors shine a light on the development of personality traits through biological and environmental factors. The biological factors are the inbuilt traits in an individual which are modified or eradicated by the environmental factors. Personality development in an individual is determined by the genotype in an individual. This affects the personality directly or indirectly through its effects on the life experiences of an individual.
However, it is also noted that genotype influence environments through passive mechanisms, evocative mechanism and active mechanism (Perry, Godoy, Lammers & Lin, 2017). The passive mechanism refers to the transmission of genes persuading personality to their children and deliver a family atmosphere that is connected with their alike hereditary make-ups. Moreover, the evocative mechanism is considered as the hereditarily prejudiced behaviour that evokes specific environmental responses. The active mechanism refers to the mechanism in which individuals create an atmosphere or environment concerning their genotypes.
The personality of an individual is initiated when persons change into different and difficult environments. In which already existing behaviour is no longer adaptive and in which clear information related to how to act adaptively is accessible (Mondak, Hayes & Canache, 2017). However, it is also noted that environmental factors such as social pressure and their role expectation influence the personality of an individual at a high level. Culture and personality are strongly liked with each other. There are various forms in the society that determines which personality trait is important concerning that. These personality traits vary from culture to culture concerning the values, needs and beliefs.
The positive, as well as negative personality traits, are determined through cultural expectations from an individual. People living in the individualist cultures environment have different influence on personality while individuals living in the collectivist cultures environment have different influence on personality (Wall, Luczak & Hiller-Sturmhöfel, 2016). People who are living in a collectivist culture environment incline to have the significance of communal peace, deference and the group wants on individual needs. However, people who are living in an individualist culture environment tend to believe that individuality, rivalry, and individual achievement are an important parts of life.
Environmental and biological factors influence personality in various ways. It is noted, that biological factors have a long term effect on the personality of an individual and on the other hand, the environmental factors have the non-uniform effect on the personality of an individual. Biological factors highly influence on personality expansion of old age people (Wahl, 2020). The people of this age group are deficient, as is information on communal role deviations and even though this age period is considered by varied age drifts that are alike in forte to those in adulthood. Life events and the social pressure influence the personality of an individual even though the biological factors are entirely different from the environmental factors of an individual. Social pressure aids an individual to depict the image in the society that is highly acceptable and admired (Kandler & Zapko-Willmes, 2017). An individual personality changes as per the need and requirement of the society. At a point, biological factors are considered at the last.
There are different researches conducted to analyze the impact of environmental and biological factors on the personality of an individual. This highly impacts the way of living of an individual. It is noted that major personality changes took place from a personality from the transition to the adulthood stage. At this phase, environmental factors, as well as biological factors, impact the personality of an individual. In this stage, the biological factors such as increased physiology maturity drive high at this stage. Moreover, environmental factors play an important role in the development of personality in an individual. Biological factors are inbuilt in an individual which add more values in an individual (Trninić, Trninić & Čavala, 2018).
However, the environmental factors largely impact the personality of an individual as it helps an individual to develop behaviour as per the demand of the present environment. Incorporate the world, it is noted that most of the things are highly gained in personality through the environment in which employees are working. Personality here refers to the behaviour of an individual in the situation of stress, productivity and so on. In a stressful situation, the personality of an individual reflects which make him suitable and fruitful in the environment of the workplace.
Emotion and the communal experiences of the initial period are intensely and imperishably signified within the behavioral expansion and are "biologically entrenched” in the anatomic structure and purpose of the rising brain of an individual. The impact of environmental and biological factors on the personality of an individual increases inconstantly with the age (Wall, Luczak & Hiller-Sturmhöfel, 2016). However, the contribution of the environmental factors in the personality traits increases from approximately zero in childhood to the moderate in the adulthood period of an individual. The personality development in an individual occurs through childhood with the times of strong alterations as well as the time of moderately high stability.
The main reason of for constancy and alteration in personality are various, and the significance of these reasons appears to vary diagonally the life course, such as biological factors and environmental factors changes seem to be predominantly persuasive concerning personality alteration in early maturity but fewer so in the old age of an individual. There are several attempts undertaken in order to understand this concept of personality trait which is irresistible difficulty and sometimes results in the mono-causal ascriptions of personality expansion.
This result either nature or cultivate, however, both viewpoints overgeneralize authenticity (Wahl, 2020). On the other hand, models that assimilate the belongings of nature and nurture in addition to their interrelation bear the hazard of being too multifaceted to permit for exact and testable forecasts of how the character will develop in an individual. Biological factors and the environmental factors in an individual add more values to an individual. It helps an individual to create a personality that is the best fit for the environment and help them to withstand in the present environment.
It is concluded from the study that the biological factors are determined in terms of brain structure and genes. On the other hand, an environmental factor that influences an individual personality are the life events, culture norms, society, actions of other peoples etc. The biological and environmental factors have deep linkage with each and both this factor builds the personality of an individual. However, personality change takes place in diverse ways and these changes are uncertain as it may be long term change in personality or short term changes. Culture and personality are strongly liked with each other. There are various norms in the society which determines which personality trait is important with respect to that. In addition, major personality changes took place from a personality from the transition to the adulthood stage. Life events and the social pressure influence the personality of an individual even though the biological factors are entirely different from the environmental factors of an individual.
Briley, D. A., & Tucker-Drob, E. M. (2014). Genetic and environmental continuity in personality development: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 140(5), 1303.
Fajkowska, M. (2018). Personality traits: Hierarchically organized systems. Journal of personality, 86(1), 36-54.
Kandler, C., & Zapko-Willmes, A. (2017). Theoretical perspectives on the interplay of nature and nurture in personality development. In Personality development across the lifespan (pp. 101-115). Academic Press.
Mondak, J. J., Hayes, M., & Canache, D. (2017). Biological and psychological influences on political trust. In Handbook on political trust. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Perry, S., Godoy, I., Lammers, W., & Lin, A. (2017). Impact of personality traits and early life experience on the timing of emigration and rise to alpha male status for wild male white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) at Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. Behaviour, 154(2), 195-226.
Specht, J., Bleidorn, W., Denissen, J. J., Hennecke, M., Hutteman, R., Kandler, C., ... & Zimmermann, J. (2014). What drives adult personality development? A comparison of theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence. European Journal of Personality, 28(3), 216-230.
Spiegel, O., Leu, S. T., Bull, C. M., & Sih, A. (2017). What's your move? Movement as a link between personality and spatial dynamics in animal populations. Ecology Letters, 20(1), 3-18.
Trninić, V., Trninić, M., & Čavala, M. (2018). INFLUENCES OF GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY, PERFORMANCE AND SPORTS ACHIEVEMENT. Acta kinesiological, 12(1), 55-61.
Wahl, K. (2020). Psychological and Biological Factors: From Personality Back to Evolution. In The Radical Right (pp. 61-110). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Wall, T. L., Luczak, S. E., & Hiller-Sturmhöfel, S. (2016). Biology, genetics, and environment: underlying factors influencing alcohol metabolism. Alcohol research: current reviews, 38(1), 59.
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