Cognitive Processes

1. The Motivation for The Study

The phenomenon of recalling something that has not occur or recalling it in different way is termed as False memory. Earlier studies on false memory of non-sense syllables and shapes (non semantic) reported that false memory is produced when there are similarities between studied and unstudied items. But the question of how studied items play role in the formation and existence of false memory is still unclear. What representation or character of the item which creates false memory and characters help in predicting rate for the non-semantic stimuli is still unclear. This motivated the researchers to conduct the present study.

2. Purpose of the study based on the Review of Literature

Previous studies employed the DRM model Deese (1959); Roediger & McDermott (1995) , to study false memory. Gallo, Bell, Beier, & Schacter (2006)

stated that a high level of false memory can be drawn from this paradigm and participants were making errors even when they have informed about such errors. This paradigm has been used to study false memory in the case of semantic stimuli. According to some researchers (Roediger, Balota, & Watson, 2001; Underwood,1965), false memory is produced as a result of the activation of lure items when participants study the DRM list and they assume familiarity with the item. Other researchers assume false memory produces as a sresult of gist trace of the study items. Association between list item and lure item was studied by Roediger et al.(2001) and the coefficient obtained is called backward associative strength (BAS). Studies by McEvoy, Nelson, & Komatsu( 1999); Robinson & Roediger (1997), showed a higher level of false memory with the DRM items having higher BAS value. These study suggested to include semantic stimuli to examine false memory.

Slotnick & Schacter (2004), used the DRM paradigm with non -sematic stimuli like shapes, Zeelenberg, Boot, & Pecher ( 2005) used it with nonsense syllables. They reported that false memory for these non-semantic stimuli was formed due to similarity in phonological and morphological similarity.

Despite much research on the occurrence of false memory by non-semantic stimuli but the factors responsible for the occurrence of false memory of non -semantic stimuli are poorly understood. The author mentioned that previous studies have used non-sense figures and human memory is less suitable for distinguishing nonsense figures compared to semantic stimuli. Roediger & McDermott (1995) mentioned higher-order processing like associative activation involvement in the occurrence of false memory. So the author feels to use stimuli that are more suitable for human memory. This necessitates the use of non-semantic stimuli which are suitable for human memory and whose characteristic is easy to quantify.

3. Hypotheses for the study

  • lure item would more likely to be falsely recognised compared to new items
  • Lure items which are closer to central scores will have more false memory compared to lure items which are farther

4. Details of Methodology

The Participants:

The 35 participants were undergraduates including 20 women belongs to age group 20 to 24 years

The Sample size:35

The stimuli and experimental task:

The stimuli used for this task is Facial stimuli obtained from Nakamura and Kawabata (2013) was used.

5. Independent Variables

Morphological characters are independent variable considered in the study

Stimulus conditions: Old, new and lure

They are within-subjects

6. Dependent Variable

The false memory rate is the Dependent Variable. In the model, the authors try to predict false memory rates using morphological characters as the independent variable by fitting the quadratic regression model. The model resulted in a poor fit. This indicates there may be other factors that influence the false memory rate of non-semantic stimuli.

7. Findings by the Author

The authors wanted to study false memory under the DRM paradigm for non-semantic stimuli. They selected the facial list as the non-semantic stimuli. They employed regression analysis to predict the false memory rate using marphological characters as an independent variable. The result showed that lure items are more likely to produce false memory compared to other items whose morphological characters are not similar to the average marppphological characteristics of the studied items. The study indicated that false memory in the case of non-semantic stimuli under the DRM paradigm was mainly due to morphological characteristics. The study also showed that False memory rate cannot be explained by individual morphological characters and the result also indicated that false memory of non-semantic stimuli of the DRM paradigm is also influenced by the gist representation of the studied items.

8. New Knowledge Gained by the study

The study showed false memory in the case of non-semantic stimuli under the DRM paradigm was caused by prototypical representations. The study also showed false memory could not be quantitatively explained and its due to gist processing for non-semantic stimuli. The study also identified the differences between false memory for semantic and non-semantic stimuli.The authors gave references to a study where false memory is correctly predicted by quantitative methods in the case of semantic stimuli. The author stated that false memory for non-semantic stimuli can happen due to remembering the gist of the studied subjects. This is what called the fussy theory in the semantic paradigm. The occurrence of false memory in the case of a non-semantic stimulus is attributed mainly to the gist. In the case of semantic, it can be attributed to both associative activation and gist.

9. Suggestions to Build Knowledge in his Area

Authors opined that there may be variables other than morphological characters that could predict false memory so for future line work can focus on this point. facial stimuli used in the study can be improved further by including impression, texture, color, and contrast, and also any other characteristic of faces that explain false memory. If the results are to be applied for real-life the procedure need to be carried using real faces. The study revealed a variable that does not predict the false memory and future research should focus on identifying factors that result in false memory for non-semantic stimuli.

References for Cognitive Processes

25(5), 1177–1194.

between true and false memories? The differential roles of interitem associations in recall and recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition,

Deese, J. (1959). On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58(1), 17–22.

Gallo, D. A., Bell, D. M., Beier, J. S., & Schacter, D. L. (2006). Two types of recollection-based monitoring in younger and older adults:Recall-to-reject and the distinctiveness heuristic. Memory, 14(6),730–741.

McEvoy, C. L., Nelson, D. L., & Komatsu, T. (1999). What is the connection

Robinson, K. J., & Roediger III, H. L. (1997). Associative processes in false recall and false recognition. Psychological Science, 8(3), 231–237.

Roediger, H. L. III, Balota, D. A., & Watson, J. M. (2001). Spreading activation and arousal of false memories. In H. L. Roediger III, J. S. Nairne, I. Neath, & a. M. Surprenant (Eds.), The nature of remembering:Essays in honor of Robert G. Crowder. Washington, DC,

Roediger, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories:Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of ExperimentalPsychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition,21(4), 803–814.

Slotnick, S. D., & Schacter, D. L. (2004). A sensory signature that distinguishes

true from false memories. Nature Neuroscience, 7(6),664–672.

Underwood, B. J. (1965). False recognition produced by implicit verbal responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70(1), 122–129.

US: American Psychological Association.

Zeelenberg, R., Boot, I., & Pecher, D. (2005). Activating the critical lure during study is unnecessary for false recognition. Consciousness and Cognition, 14(2), 316–326.

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