Ethics is defined as principles, rules along with the moral behavior standards which actually highlights the differences between right or wrong. The ethical decision differs from one person to another. The organisational ethics can also be defined as corporate or business ethics. The organizational ethics applies in different organizational conducts and is also relevant for the organizational management as well as on the employees. It can be stated both as the normative and descriptive discipline. The assumptions on which organizational ethics is dependent is through the development of the organizational commitment in the promotion of the non-economic social values. The word ethics has different meanings like customs, ideals, characters, norms etc. Through organizational ethics, the organizational behaviour along with the morality can get easily observed which will be highlighted in the following headings after going through Miner (2006) ethical decision-making process to reach a certain decision regarding the choice of the ethical dilemma.
The different moral theories on consequentialism, deontology, and normative relativism at each step will be explained in the following. The word deontology has been derived from the Greek word which means duty. In the contemporary moral philosophies, deontology can be defined as one form of the normative theories based on which the choices are getting morally permitted through which the choices can get easily accessed. Consequentialism is simply defined as a view which is actually depended on consequences. Consequentialism defines the moral rightness of acts which states that worrying about the past will not bring anything beneficial to the organization. Hence the morally right decisions needs to be undertaken which actually depends on the actual consequences.
Table of Contents
Review of Ethical decision-making process using the EDM model
Clarifying Different dimensions with situations.
Identification and evaluation of alternatives.
Selection of action.
APSC Laws on code of ethics and conduct
The ethical problem that have been selected in this context is an organizational conflict dilemma where it is the responsibility of the accounts manager to manage the company’s accounting statement irregularities. However the fact is not as simple as after checking with the psychologist, it have been found that the person is facing certain financial problems and also embezzlement (Boris, 2020). This is the reason, he is unable to coping up with the organizational irregularities and also find difficult in settling the problems. According to Miner (2006), what is the right thing to do is one of the important aspects to be questioned under ethics. There exists certain meta-ethical perspectives like that of realism, naturalism as well as non-naturalism. In modern times, realism is defined as one form of real properties that is non-reducible to other natural terms.
However it have still been perceived as one of the important and effective natural properties. Again in the context of naturalism, right or wrong, good or bad needs to be completely definable based on which the moral decisions need to be undertaken. The other meta-physical perspectives involves scepticism, emotivism, non-naturalism based on which the moral perspectives and standards get defined in an adequate manner (Christine, 2012). It has been highlighted that there exists no absolute moral standards nor any objective point based on which the moral judgments along with moral assertions can be easily objectified. The steps of Miner can be evaluated as follows:
Consequentialism- This is an ethical dilemma since non-co-operation by the accounts manager might hamper the organizational regulations. According to the ethical dilemma, the non-cooperation by the Accounts Manager might lead to certain problems like there will be a false interpretation of the account systems which will create a negative impact on the organizational credibility.
Deontology-As per the EDM model, the duty of care needs to be undertaken both by the senior executive and the psychologist in such a manner without hurting the sensitive side of the accounts manager. The salient features of duty of care involves moral thinking and comprehensive considerations based on which the relationship between the values, and attitudes and the beliefs can get well examined. If the proper duties of care cannot be performed, then ultimately the organization and the employees within the organization will get affected.
Normative Relativism- According to New South Wales laws, in the context of cultural values, it is always important to deliver effective workplace culture which are safe, inclusive, ethical and productive. In this aspect, as per the case study, it is the responsibility of the organizational psychologist and the senior executive to create a positive workplace environment through constant counselling of the accounts manager to get the better productivity and the motivational actions from him. The involvement of the cultural groups like the professional planners should be seeking solutions rather than the barriers without harming the ethics and dignity of each other (Helgi, 2015). The core cultural values in planning makes an involvement of shared values and the responsibilities with effect to social , economic and the environmental sustainability (Niraj, 2019).
Consequentialism- In this context, one has to look at the past situations or any incidents of the accounts management which made him un-cooperative in the decision making process. From the case study, it has been observed that there is a pat history of the accounts manager where he had faced two problems that are alcoholism and marital instability. It has also been found that the accounts manager had also a past problem on embezzlements
Deontology- According to laws of New South Wales and EDM model, the rights and along with that the freedom of the society can also be protected. This way the standards of conduct along with the individual behaviour can be well evaluated.
Normative Relativism- There are different aspects of cultural norms in the context of ethical values like learning, purpose, results, order, authority and safety (See Appendix B).
Consequentialism- It will be the responsibility of the psychologist to set certain possible alternatives like proper screening and the counseling of the accounts manager so that he can get motivated in every aspect based on which he can strongly perform his duties
Deontology- If the stated rights and duties cannot be executed than , there are certain negative consequences like hamper in the organizational growth and also the benefit of the employees will not be carried out properly
Normative Relativism- The reflection of the culture in the context of ethical values is based on certain points like the rule of private gain, the involvement of every individuals and also the organizational benefit along with burden needs to be shared among the employees so that they can establish the core values within the organization can be well maintained (see Appendix A). In addition to this, proper care along with the re-examination of values and perspectives needs to be evaluated through which the ethical dilemmas in the organization can be effectively handled (See Appendix C).
Consequentialism- In this situation, the most beneficial alternative for the psychologist to consult with the senior executive within the organization regarding the accounts manager and made the executive realize what the actual problems is, the accounts manager had gone through. Along with this, professional trainings also needs to be conducted for the accounts manager and that should be ethically sensitive by nature.
Deontology- The ethical actions corresponds to the duties involves the establishment of the regulatory practices and the regulations as per the New South Wales law based on which the false actions will get stopped and the decision making system will also be strengthened enough.
Normative Relativism- Here the best action that needed to be examined with code , laws and ethics involves integrity , teamwork , passion for excellences , where the people ultimately gets motivated , engaged , feels valued and also growing. Here one of the important action is working together based on trust, openness and respect through which the strategic leadership can be dealt properly (Boris, 2020).
According to The Public Service Act 1999 states the employee working spirits within the organization should be manatained well according to APS values so that the employees can be easily guides in making decisions (Australian Government, 2020). This is an essential part of the code of conduct. In addition to this, in the context of the case scenario, I as a psychologist along with the senior executive should be committed in our service while guiding the accounts manager in order to motivate him to work innovative and efficient to achieve best out of the employees within the organization. The APS laws helps in demonstrating leadership, trustworthiness and along with that the acts with integrity (APSC, 2020).In addition APS laws is also based on care aand diligences, where the senior managers is always responsible to deliver the programme by the development of best performance management processes so that the misconduct within the organization can get eradicated (APSC, 2020). It is also the requirement to treat every employees with dignity and courtesy without bullying or harassing the employees (See Appendix E). Care is the primary focus of the senior managers senior manager to maintain the work culture within organization (APSC, 2020).
Next comes the Public Sector Ethics Act (1994) which all the Australian organizations should follow which involves acting impartially with all the employees and act with integrity. At the same time commitment to the employees along with the establishment of accountability and transparency (NSW, 2020). Again as per Work Health Safety Act 2011, the duties of the employer will be to ensure proper provision and mantainance of the safe plant and structures along with the safe systems at work place. Along with this the codes of practice involves to look after any risks suffered by the employees and hence to deal with those particular issues through the effective management of risks (NSW, 2020).
In this particular code of ethics, the contribution will lead towards the continuous promotion in improvement and managing the changes effectively and along with that also properly contributing towards culture of achievement. This way, the Australian Government can be served along with the Australian community. These are some of the important ethical standards through which the organizational ethical dilemmas can be solved (NSW, 2020). The other important steps through which the organizational dilemmas within Australia can be solved is to be accountable with the employees and also be open towards the scrutiny and also being transparent in the decision making system in order to bring the positive attitude within the employees across organization which will be formulated with adequate considerations through the formulation of statutory and administrative reporting systems (Worksafe, 2020).
The ethical theories and actions aims at formation of the decision making foundation where the primary objective of the individuals will be to understand the ethical decision making standards along with certain principles like beneficence, least harm to the other employees in the organization and at the same time respecting for autonomy where justice is important (see Appendix D). According to me as a psychologist, by following the law on Fair Work Act 2009, would like to promote the behavioural change through the dialogue, intervention as well as adequate support to the accounts manager in order to reflect his positive attitude towards other individuals in the organization (see Appendix E).
In doing this, I will be adhering with the recommended ethical guidelines to maintain myself ethical standards within the organization and also preventing certain amount of professional obligations as one of the practising psychologist. It will be my responsibility that without providing any harm to the individual present within the organization, I should maintain the organizational decorum so that there will exist certain betterment for the employees as per New South Wales law (DSEF, 2020). Hence as per the laws and the ethical codes of conduct , the transparent communication and the intervention is necessary by me and my senior executive to deal with the organizational problems and to create organizational betterment. This way, the potential avenues for interventions will get highly reflected.
APSC. (2020). Elements of the APS Code of Conduct. Retrieved from Elements of the APS Code of Conduct: https://www.apsc.gov.au/appendix-5-elements-aps-code-conduct
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Boris, G. (2020, January 08). How Corporate Cultures Differ Around the World. Retrieved from How Corporate Cultures Differ Around the World: https://hbr.org/2020/01/how-corporate-cultures-differ-around-the-world
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Niraj, S. (2019). Professional ethics in academia: defining the categories of behavior spectrum in matters of unethical conduct. International Journal of Ethics Education, 193-194.
NSW. (2020). NSW legislation. Retrieved from NSW legislation: https://www.legislation.nsw.gov.au/#/
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Rodrick, C. (2015). Ethics and Professional Conduct for Sustainable Development: A Case of Malawian Construction Industry. Journal of Business and Economics, 401-413.
Worksafe. (2020). Workplace Health and Safety. Retrieved from Code of conduct: https://www.worksafe.qld.gov.au/about-us/workcover-queensland/corporate-governance/code-of-conduct
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