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The Pantheon (Figure 1) is one of Italy's most prominent sights (Figure 2), as it is considered one of the oldest remaining buildings in Rome today. Since it is an architectural and technological artifact that is widely regarded, its past is well examined. There is still much mystery about its building and its construction but there are a lot of publications today, each of which offers numerous interpretations and views of the topic, that give speculation about this framework, from conception to the architecture, construction and evolution (Masi et al., 2018).
The Pantheon is built in keeping with classic architecture. Classical architecture is a plain but sophisticated design, with straight lines and delicate decorations in metal or painted shape. Also traditional design with beautiful columns and wide arches and cupolas was designed to display the architects' talents.
The Pantheon currently consists of a triangular portico, three lines of granite columns supporting a circular structure, and is a wide 43.3-meter diameter hemispheric dome. Please notice that a portico, a building entry protected by or flanked by columns, is by nature a portico (Fletcher, 2019). The dome is built on a cylindrical framework of the same diameter and a height that is 21,65 meters high. At the Pantheon, an important discovery to make is that the inner structure of the roton produces an ideal circle. The rotunda 's height at the peak of the dome refers to its circumference (Masi et al., 2018).
This building exudes a GENIUS LOCI, and goes back to 2000 years ago to exude the nature of the original Roman Empire. The Pantheon today is a christian church with a hot spot, but initially built and installed as a pagan timepiece. PLATONIC SOLIDS are a ring that determines the structure. Furthermore, half a circle, the star, and an additive cube to describe the portetic, is inserted inside the cones, showing the central centration. A triangle cap to a temple is filled in the portico with a PEDIMENT (Williams, 2017).
The creation of work is focused on an orthogonal structure of the city around the Pantheon in Classical Roman times. Before the house, the transparent sides of a FIGURAL VOID should have stressed the portico-reinforced frontal consistency. The scale of the urban setting of Classic Rome involves housing, industrial, worship, entertainment and other structures. Currently, the website has been replaced with an unclear gap, but the current sense of the region is already evolving (Williams, 2017).
The design is simple, the inside is circular and the entrance into the circle has a porch. It's a far bigger portico-like company for Santa Costanza (Thomas, 2017). This establishes a fusion between the Santa Costanza radial organization and the broader Pantheon portico axial organization. CELLA, with seven sculptures representing seven separate gods, describes the space. The Romans used technological and materialistic developments to construct large interior spaces. In the Pantheon, the inner cella walls of the temple are similar to the outer walls, making a large interior with a wide roof above the house. The building has now been transformed into a Christian CHURCH, Christian sculptures, portrait and symbols that replace heathen iconography. The ALTAR, the focal point of the Christian worship rite, is at the opposite end of the entry.
The OCULUS is a hole (no glass) opening to the sky on the peak of a globe. The interior is fantastically open to the environment: a column of rain enters the building when it rains. Snow twinkles in the interior when it snows (not often). The light is palpable and complex, reinforcing an axis mundus, as mentioned before. on a sunny day. While the Romans did not believe that the sun was in the middle, the oculus at the Pantheon is a crucial element (Thomas, 2017).
COFFERS, an architectural feature to a roof, organizes the inner roof of the cathedral. For design, there are many variations of coffers. The Pantheon coffers are special in their peculiar shape and design. The Pantheon's boxes reinforce a view in both of these boxes to render it look bigger to larger in the bigger dome. DEMATERIALIZATION is the small decrease of mass in the sense of the cube.
In a decorative fashion, the Romans raising mass in the dome via the coffers. Even dematerialization can be considered for the niches described above. In the order of the coffers there is a clear arrangement and purpose. Look closely and remember that five horizontal coffer lines are visible. Which are the 5 planets at the period (Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars and Jupiter) that were known to the Roman citizens. There are 28 vertical columns of cabinets that are days equivalent to a moon period. The light, moon, and five planets together pose for a smaller world version, a microcosm (SZABÓ, 2020).
There tend to be theoretical issues about how the oculus functions. Why is an oculus hole likely to be identified because the traditional form of a dome is that of an arch rotated at 3006 degrees, and an arch allows all the portions of the arch to stand (Rüpke, 2018) The Dome of the Pantheon is a special structure, a series of dense layered rings to make the open eyepiece on top. This form of dome is lateral and requires the mass of the walls. The Romans developed a framework for the creation of the world's largest unreinforced concrete span dome, and described the city imagination contained in it. Today it remains a central nucleus and center of the region.
Fletcher, R., 2019. Geometric Proportions in Measured Plans of the Pantheon of Rome. Nexus Network Journal, 21(2), pp.329-345.
Masi, F., Stefanou, I. and Vannucci, P., 2018. A study on the effects of an explosion in the Pantheon of Rome. Engineering structures, 164, pp.259-273.
Masi, F., Stefanou, I. and Vannucci, P., 2018. On the origin of the cracks in the dome of the Pantheon in Rome. Engineering Failure Analysis, 92, pp.587-596.
Nicoletta, L. and Virgili, P., 2016. THE URBAN SET OF THE PANTHEON AND THE MAUSOLEUM OF AUGUSTUS IN ROME, BETWEEN ARCHITECTURAL AND ASTRONOMICAL SYMBOLISM. Mediterranean Archaeology & Archaeometry, 16(4).
Rüpke, J., 2018. Pantheon: A New History of Roman Religion. Princeton University Press.
Sparavigna, A.C. and Dastrù, L., 2018. The Pantheon, eye of Rome, and its glimpse of the sky. Eye of Rome, and Its Glimpse of the Sky (May 27, 2018).
Sparavigna, A.C., The Zenith seen through the Oculus of the Pantheon.
SZABÓ, C., 2020. Jörg Rüpke, Pantheon. A new history of Roman religion. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2018, 551 p. 64 photos, ISBN 9780691156835. Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology No, 7, p.191.
Thomas, E., 2017. The cult statues of the Pantheon. The Journal of Roman Studies, 107, pp.146-212.
Williams, B., 2017. Pantheon, Rome.
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