Social Construction of Welfare

Table of Contents

Introduction.

Research marks.

Critical analysis.

Conclusion.

References.

Introduction to Social Construction of Welfare

This essay will confer that there are factors like and mental illness that subjected unemployment in the nation whereas Scott Morrison has subjected that “the best form of welfare is a job” (Department of Social Services, 2015). The research on Australia has shown that people with psychological health issues, together with stress, are more expected to be unemployed at first, and the more unemployed they are, the inferior qualityof their mental health will be. Further, there is likewise a solid connection between poor mental health and poverty, worries about not being capable of meeting the cost of living as well as deterioration of mental health goes in hand with increasing poverty. This essay will subject why poverty subjects in a nation and how it is connected to unemployment and why mental illness is subjected as a reason for unemployment in a nation like Australia (Grantet al. 2016).

Furthermore, the government has recognized the relation between mental health and unemployment. Besides,the Minister of Social Services nowemphasized a trial program that adds mental health as well as job seeker assistance so as to every people in Newstart can gain a work. Working simultaneously with Headspace, the pilot assisted in the work of 500 young men. But instead of investing more in the underlying unemployment problem solving program, the government is suggesting to spend $10,000 for every job seeker in increasing the unexpected cashless provident card. Besides, poverty increased the hazard of mental health issues and can be both reason andoutcome of mental sickness. Also, mental health varies by the broader characteristics (i.e. inequality) of the physical, financial, andsocialenvironment where people live. Effectively supporting the well-being and mental health of people living in poverty as well as decreasing the quantity of people suffering from mental health problem in poverty must be involved in this complication (Forsythe & Adams,2017).

Research Marks

The obvious and simple answer to the way unemployment makes poverty, which is through income reduction. Unemployment reduces income and many families live without enough income to spend on their basic needs. This often leads to borrowing money, becoming ill, mental trauma and other health effects. In the due course, when people today are enforced to use saving to reduce their expenses, their future retirement fund is decreased. It has long-term negative effect on economies, including high level of youth unemployment worldwide. At present, youth unemployment will reduce the income of future as well asraise the burden on the government. When people consider themselves unemployed, the falling risk into the long-term unemployment is increased. It has been identified that the life characteristic of poor residents makes a poverty net because families do not have the required tools for employment. While living in poor areas, people have limited access to low-cost housing, undefeated schools and public transport and services. These results again reduce a person's chances of finding a job (Lawrenceet al. 2016).

Mental health affects our quality of life and, more broadly and it can be linked to other social consequences such as poverty. It is already known that anxiety disorders are on the rise worldwide, and by 2030, mental health problems will be a major cause of the disease. Unemployment can worsen mental health in a variety of ways. Loss of income due to unemployment can reduce the quality of life of an individual or a family. Instead, it has impact on health. Also, the loss of income can strength the unemployed for reducing their standards of living, that can affect the mental and physicalhealth of the unemployed. Besides,the level of failure in the standard of living relies upon factors, namely the benefits of unemployment,the wealth of the unemployed, the period of unemployment, and the wealth and income of family members (Rohdeet al. 2016).

Unemployment has an effect on mental health can differ with the period of unemployment. There are competitive theories about how this can be different. Some have contended that the trauma of losing a job is less severe when it happens. Others have noted that the stigma associated with unemployment, social segregation or material deficiency may rise over time. As indicated by the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development), it is commendable to link these estimates to a U-shaped scheme: a hugepreliminary impact, tapering off over time, however increasing again if the unemployment endures for a long period.

In other words, mental illness is related to the lowest prospect of being in the workforce. Additionally, people with mental illness are also over represented in the homeless and prison populations, includingfit for 75% of homeless people having a mental sickness. In addition, 40% of convicts have a mental sickness, 10–20% of which are severe. Theepidemiological researches have shownacontrary relationship among social class and mental illness, meaning that as one goes up the other goes down. Psychiatric disorder has been constantlyrevealed to be more general amidpeople in minor social classes. Unemployment increases the probabilities ratio of psychiatric illnesses (Martinez& Perales, 2017).

Critical Analysis of Social Construction of Welfare

It is evident fact to state that effective healthcare is crucial to increasing employment opportunities. Although the National Mental Health and Welfare Survey provides valuable information, the duration and severity of mental illness are important factors in identifying its overall impact on families, people, and society. Chronic and severe mental sicknesses, for example mental illnesses, which has a comparatively low prevalence but significantly affect individuals, their society and families due to the uninterrupted and sometimes significant need for individual support. Besides, poverty is essential social elements of physical health and psychological health, interconnecting with all the other elements like community status,local community, education, ethnicity or race, immigration status,gender, healthcare access, environment. The poverty has an effect on psychological health is lifelong and widespread.

People living in poverty, particularly early in life or for long periods of time, are at hazard of opposing health and developmental impacts for most of their lives. Children’s poverty is associated with a reduction in school outcomes; inferiorbehavioural, psychological, and concentration outcomes; the rates of high crime, depression and nervousnesssickness as well as high rate of mental illness in nearly all adults. Youth poverty is associated with depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, mental health problems and suicide (Christensenet al. 2017).

Poverty has an impact on mental health through a variety of biological and social processes that occur at manifold levels, such aspeople, families, state and local communities. Individuals with financial stress, exposure to chronic and intensive life event, the “Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal”(HPA) axis, change in brain circuits (i.e. functional health and language processing) and outcomes mediate the individual relationship between mental health and poverty. Adequate acquaintance to poisoning (e.g., depressing), stress on parental relationships between family-level intermediaries, parental psychopathology (particularly depression), parental investment or warmth, aggressive and non-parental, encouragement of the family environment, and child abuse (Ewartet al. 2017).

Enhancing the health status of Indigenous peoples within Australia is a long-term challenge for the Australian Government. The gap in health status among indigenous customs and between indigenous peoplesis unacceptable. It recognized as a concern of human rights by UN Committee and alsoidentified by the Government of Australia.

The social determinant theory identified that population health as well as inequality are measured by several social aspects. For example, this is a fundamental theory of human right law that each right is interrelated as well as the pleasure ofone right has an impacton the enjoyment of another one at once. Due to this combination, the human rights discourse presents a structure for examining the potential health effects of government programs and policies on indigenous societies.

The significant factors of Indigenous health inequality in Australia, with a deficiency of access to the same healthcare and basic level of health structure as compared to other Australians, are comparatively less likely to be blinded by the community at low cost (healthy housing, food, sanitation, etc.). Even though the basis for enhancing health consequences of indigenous inhabitants, these problems are not considered in the document. However, this study examines the social determinant of indigenous health, including the special reference to the principles and policies of human rights (Foster, Cuzzillo& Furness, 2018).

The health status of Aboriginal people in Australia and the inhabitants of the Torres Street Islands is very poor compared to the rest of the population in Australia. Besides, there is a huge disparity in inequality among all individuals in Australia. In Australia, perhaps, there is a gap of about 17 years between the lifespan of Indigenous peoples. Indigenous Australians have at least twice the rate of indigenous-specific mortality of all ages under 65 years of age.

Indigenous people do not have the same prospect to stay healthy as non-Indigenous people of Australia. Indigenous peoples and relatively simple islanders who are at risk of exposure to regional socioeconomic disadvantages due to their behavioural and environmental risks with regional socioeconomic disadvantages, such as those with a higher proportion of indigenous families, contribute to recovery in more lifeless situations. Moreover,indigenous people do not have equivalent access to key health infrastructure and health care (such as clean water,garbage collection services, effective sanitation, and hygienic housing).

Very little progress has been made over the past decade to address this disparity between Indigenous and Torres Strait Islands and Indigenous Australians, for example, for long-term measures such as longevity (Dobson &Knezevic, 2017).

In Australia, the role of economically disadvantaged countries does not mean public service is the last service. In the new economic situation, inflation (devaluation of money over time) has a role to play in balancing inflation. Under Whitlam, an unemployment rate of 5% is considered unacceptable. In the new example, the 5% unemployment is considered a theoretical minimum that can be maintained without creating high unacceptable inflation. Unemployment benefits as a source of long-term income for some people. However, these benefits are still at a stage where unemployment is expected as temporary and transitional. As we know, mental illness is different from mental health. It is also different from ‘mental health problems’, which rely on short-term mental health in response to stress and livelihoods. For example, if you are worried about losing a family member, you may feel a mental health ‘problem’ that can be solved by supporting yourself as well as navigating the natural path of grief.

On the other hand, mental illness is a serious phenomenon and can be dangerous to work with. People are suffering from mental illness and more are dying from the disease because there are more physical health problems than the average person. Also, physical health needs are often neglected and underestimated in primary and secondary care. Social relationships are also affected by mental health and poverty. A qualitative study of the experiences of mental illness as well as poverty reinforces the centrality of loneliness and loneliness. Besides, difficulties in maintaining family and community relationships are found in mental illness. This problem can be further complicated because there is no relationship that is not conducive to their exposure to worse effects, mental illness, and poverty as well as the organization is restricted. Also, feelings of stigma and shame will make the separation worse (Considine, Nguyen & O’Sullivan, 2018).

Indigenous peoples and the people of the Torres Street Islands are involved in discrimination with health conditions. Historically, indigenous peoples and residents of the Torres Street Islands have not had the prospect to be as strong as indigenous peoples. It is owing to lack of access to some basic services including primary health care and loss of access to health services as well as inadequate provision of health structure for some indigenous communities and the Torres Street Islands. Physicians at the “Royal Australasian College of Physicians” have described these health inequalities as "both preventable and systematic."

Conclusion on Social Construction of Welfare

It is very imperative to state that health is a major factor for any country that wants to concede unemployment. Getting a job becomes tough if mental health problems subject in a nation. Mental illness is very general. It identified that 20% Australians aged 16-85 experience a mental sickness in any time. Besides, welfare-to-work interventions appear to have the presence of better outcomes for the poorer groups, but the evidence is consistent for long-term recipients of Indigenous people. The greater benefit of program work for long-term recipients is that some interventions may result in greater efforts to target these recipients. Certainly, there is a case of expanding welfare programs in disadvantaged subgroups, especially if further analyses show that other subjects have similar disadvantages. As reported here, it is important to share lessons about welfare programs and the results of the analysis, it is important to study in more detail.

In particular, we found that the effects of welfare programs on most welfare programs are minimal. However, our meta-analysis may identify a few factors that contributed to the success story. Other sources such as more detailed surveys and focus groups can be used to test the program in more detail in an attempt to find successful sources. We know that positive work experience improves self-esteem, self-esteem, and subjective comfort. Work is also a vehicle for rehabilitation and rehabilitation. This can be a difficult cycle, as mental illness hinders the ability to seek, receive and retain employment, especially due to higher risks for example anxiety, affective illness, and substance abuse. We recognize that money is not a guarantor of mental health, nor does its absence essentially lead to mental sickness. Poverty, however, can be a consequence and determinant of poor mental health. Mental illness is consistently much cheaper among people of different social classes in general. Unemployment significantly increases the incidence of mental illness Thus, access to employment at the interface of poverty and mental illness is an important intermediate variable.

References for Social Construction of Welfare

Christensen, D., Fahey, M. T., Giallo, R., & Hancock, K. J. (2017). Longitudinal trajectories of mental health in Australian children aged 4-5 to 14-15 years. PloS one12(11), e0187974.

Considine, M., Nguyen, P., & O’Sullivan, S. (2018). New public management and the rule of economic incentives: Australian welfare-to-work from job market signalling perspective. Public Management Review20(8), 1186-1204.

Department of Social Services. (2015) Address to the National Press Club "The Best Form of Welfare". Retrieved from: https://formerministers.dss.gov.au/15959/address-to-the-national-press-club-the-best-form-of-welfare/

Dobson, K., &Knezevic, I. (2017). ‘Liking and Sharing’the stigmatization of poverty and social welfare: Representations of poverty and welfare through Internet memes on social media. tripleC: Communication, Capitalism & Critique. Open Access Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society15(2), 777-795.

Ewart, S. B., Happell, B., Bocking, J., Platania‐Phung, C., Stanton, R., & Scholz, B. (2017). Social and material aspects of life and their impact on the physical health of people diagnosed with mental illness. Health Expectations20(5), 984-991.

Forsythe, L., & Adams, K. (2017). Mental health, abuse, drug use and crime: Does gender matter?.

Foster, K., Cuzzillo, C., & Furness, T. (2018). Strengthening mental health nurses' resilience through a workplace resilience programme: A qualitative inquiry. Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing25(5-6), 338-348.

Grant, A., Goodyear, M., Maybery, D., &Reupert, A. (2016). Differences between Irish and Australian psychiatric Nurses' family-focused practice in adult mental health services. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing30(2), 132-137.

Lawrence, D., Hafekost, J., Johnson, S. E., Saw, S., Buckingham, W. J., Sawyer, M. G., ... & Zubrick, S. R. (2016). Key findings from the second Australian child and adolescent survey of mental health and wellbeing. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry50(9), 876-886.

Martinez, A., & Perales, F. (2017). The dynamics of multidimensional poverty in contemporary Australia. Social Indicators Research130(2), 479-496.

Rohde, N., Tang, K. K., Osberg, L., & Rao, P. (2016). The effect of economic insecurity on mental health: Recent evidence from Australian panel data. Social Science & Medicine151, 250-258.

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