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Building Regulations Studies

  1. According to the multi-classification criteria of the building as per NCC, the building is classified as class 5 as it is an underside of a recently renovated floor and such that it is a type B construction.
  2. The specified aggregate width shall be less than the total required width although each must have minimum required width and when the width of exit or path is added the specified aggregated width must be achieved.
  3. D1.2 – The building must have one exit from each story. While considering class 2-8 buildings, the provision is that an effective height of minimum of 25 meters and fire fighting equipment are to be provided. The building is having two exits as per plan near two staircases which satisfies the D1.2 provisions.
  4. According to BCA provision C2.10, the lift shaft walls must have relevant fire resistant levels independent of the class of building. As per the case, the lift shafts don’t offer the fire protection and doest seal smoke to some extend. The fire resistance level shall be as per table 3 of specification C1.1. This was to be effectively considered for construction as per damage of the showcased article
  5. C2.7 sets out the requirements of FRL of walls. The firewall is required to have a higher FRL. As per Specification C2.7, a (ii) openings in firewalls don’t reduce the required FRL for firewall except for doorways, sliding doors, and firewall form separation in horizontal exit and openings for service penetrations.
  6. Currently, there are no fire standards for green walls as per DTS provisions in Australia
  7. Type A is considered the most fire-resistant construction. For external and common walls non-combustible construction materials may be adopted for type A construction. For floor and floor framing of lift pit non, combustible materials shall be considered, For load-bearing internal walls and firewalls only masonry, fire-protected timber, and concrete materials shall be used for construction. In the case of Non-load-bearing walls and ventilation pipes and shafts, the materials should be non-combustible. They are of building for Type A construction shall be within the permissible limits of Table C 2.2. The external, walls may be separated and provided with openings. Fire separation between floors shall be achieved by fire resistance level (FRL) applied to openings on different floors if horizontal distance is more than 450 mm. The vertical separation and opening in external walls may be cording to provisions C2.6 and if the sprinkler method is not provided then at least a non-combustible spandrel for horizontal project facing outwards of external walls may be provided beyond openings of a least 450 mm.
  8. No Example of wall separating different classification
  1. Fire rating of the common balcony – Vertical separation is applied to the buildings under type A construction as the separation is only achieved by proper FRL‘s. This can be achieved by the installation of sprinklers in building to resist the spread of fire. The vertical separation of openings shall be achieved by installing non-combustible Spandrel or vertical construction of overall height 900 mm or at least 600 mm above the upper surface of the floor having an FRL of 60/60/60 or non-combustible projection which done towards the external face of the wall within 1100 mm or extension beyond openings of at least 450 mm or having FRL 60/60/60.
  1. As per C2.6 c which defines the meaning of term window or other opening describe st hat external wall which doesn't have an FRL of 60/60/60 and to limit the spread for fire from one story to other passing through the window or opening and re-entering with at least 60/60/60 FRL the openings included maybe windows. Glass curtain walls, nonfire panels, and other parts of FRL at least 60/60/60.

The part of opening is as shown in the figure.

The wall wetting sprinkler usage and specification shall; be according to C3.4 A(I) and C3.4 A (II) which clarifies the specification for automatic closing windows and permanently closed windows. As per C3.8 d, it is applied to windows that could expose an evacuating person or fire-fighter from radiant heat and fire in the building. The sprinkler system may be provided within the side of the window and sprinkler heads may also be located alongside the window outside the exit. The openings must be protected within a distance of 6m from the building.

  1. DTS provision for vertically lined up windows

For vertical lined up windows, the external walls are required to be fire-resistant according to clause3.7.1.3 and protected by nonexpendable fire windows with FRL not less than -/60/- Apart from these the window which faces the boundary of an adjoining element may not be less than 600 mm and the window faces towards another building of not less than 1200mm from building provided with bathroom and toilet of not more than 1.2 m2 od the opening should have an area, not more than 0.54 m2 and window shall be steel-framed and no opening sashes om wired glass and opening shall be enclosed with translucent hollow glass blocks. The usage of automatic closing windows or permanently closing windows along with usage of wall wetting sprinklers is also entertained. Fire isolated exits may be provided with adequate protection of door and window openings. A sprinkler system may be installed within fire isolated exit and subjected to requirements for protection from external fire.

  1. Here the building has an underground garage and the floor height of the building is 3 m. The building is said to be a type C construction as it has only one or more stories. So the building is categorized under type C construction it's considered to be a low occupant building as it consists of a garage in the underground and apartment on the upper floor, and therefore it's least fire-resistant. The building is considered to be a low-risk occupant building and is the least fire-resistant in nature. The fire source feature may such that it represents the location of fire spread from one place to another, it may be from the external wall of another building or the same as a rear or far boundary to the adjoining road. Boundaries are mainly considered as fire source and fire source features are to be provided such that the owner has no control over adjoining lots and no particular injury is anticipated. Structural adequacy and insulation level may be checked for archival and the criteria shall be with a minimum fire resistance level of 90 minutes for structural adequacy as it's considered to be important and 60 minutes for insulation and 30 minutes for integrity. The construction type is not to be confused with the building class. The importance of the type of construction is for determining the level of fire resistance of the building and the particular standards or elements the building must achieve to be protected from fire and its injuries. There are three types of construction classification for building. type A is considered for high rise buildings of more than 4 stories and type B for more than 2 stories and type C for one and two stories as per BCA standards and specifications.
  1. Fire protection elements include external and common walls non-combustible construction materials may be adopted for type A construction. For floor and floor framing of lift pit non, combustible materials shall be considered, For load-bearing internal walls and firewalls only masonry, fire-protected timber, and concrete materials shall be used for construction. In the case of Non-load-bearing walls and ventilation pipes and shafts, the materials should be non-combustible. They are of building for Type A construction shall be within the permissible limits of Table C 2.2. The external, walls may be separated and provided with openings. Fire separation between floors shall be achieved by fire resistance level (FRL) applied to openings in different stories if horizontal distance is more than 450 mm. The usage of automatic closing windows or permanently closing windows along with usage of wall wetting sprinklers is also entertained. Fire isolated exits may be provided with adequate protection of door and window openings. A sprinkler system may be installed within fire isolated exit and subjected to requirements for protection from external fire. The vertical separation and opening in external walls may be cording to provisions C2.6 and if the sprinkler method is not provided then at least a non-combustible spandrel for horizontal projects facing outwards of external walls may be provided beyond openings of a least 450 mm.

Under the NCC Deemed to satisfy provisions, the fire sprinkler system is required only if the height of the building is more than 25 m which accommodates the aged, children, and disabled persons. As the height of the building from the plan is considered to be less than 10 m, there is no requirement for exist serves to be fire isolated.

  1. Fire hydrant and fire hose reel requirements

The fire hose reels may be appropriate with numerous factors like the size of fire compartment and measurement for sizes for potential fire, how the function of the building will affect the fire loads in structure, and specification for the fire safety system to affect the fire spread rate and danger in terms of potential harm exposure from start and spread of fire. The fire hose reel may be installed if properly considered DTS provisions. Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed to cover class A fire risks. The reels shall be installed in an area that is readily accessible in the event of a fire emergency. The location shall be marked with proper signs and shall be compliant according to the provisions and standards of AS 1221.The fire hose reels are to be installed in areas where internal fire hydrants are used., For the area with 400 m2, the level of hazard justifies the installation of fire hose reels and allows occupants to attempt an initial attack of fire. Fire hose reels are not permitted to be installed along with fire isolated exit by avoiding the hose pass through the doors provided. The main purpose of providing fire hydrant is to provide adequate water and maintain sufficient pressure and water flow to fight fire and brigade. The pressure and flow from hydrants are to be considered with great care and designers are expected to meet sufficient requirements and cover all matters such as the provision of coupling and pressure to suit the nozzle etc. It’s also to be checked the nature of fire hazard that danger can cause in terms of the degree of fire exposure from initial start to the spread of fire. The main reason to provide fire hydrant is to benefit the brigade's intention o fire and reduce the fire passage time.AS 2419.1 recommends all details and specifications and location of the number of fire hydrants whenever required. The fire hose reels may be located at 36 m apart such that the occupants can reach fire within any part of the building. The maximum distance to a fire hydrant from the closest point on the building shall not exceed 600 ft. for the required building.

References for Fire Safety

National construction code, Guide to Volume 1,2019 Amendment ,NC C 2019 Guide to BCA Volume one, ABCB.

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