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Advanced Hydrogeology

Contents

Introduction..

Literature Review...

M,ethodology.

Result Ans Discussion..

Conclusion..

References.

Introduction to Computerized Evaluation of Water Supply Reliability

The water supply system is a very important things in the town. It is very important for the newly constructed town. The water is the second important thing for the people after the air and a pure water should be available for each and every person in the world. The supply of pure water is also necessary for the people. The percentage of pure water is not very much as compared to the water available on the earth. For the design of water supply system a huge analysis should be done before the analysis because the design depends on many things such as population get benefitted by the system the location where the water for supply is to taken from. The distribution system and the distribution plan of the pure water supply. The supply of the water to the people is given by measuring the water with help of measuring meter. For the design of water supply the engineer design the system. First of all the design duration is fixed and after that the population for casting is done for that period of time. The forecasting of population can be done by any method such as the arithmetic method , geometric method and logarithmic method. The water supply is defined as the fulfillment of the water demand of the continuously increasing population by the optimum quantity and quality of water through the designed network of pipes. The water supply system needs many things such as the infrastructure for the collection purification tramission, treatment and storage of the water. For the supply of the water in the distribution system of the city includes all the demand such as the commercial public and industrial. Water supply system must also include the other secondary demand such as demand in the school and hospitals. Each and every design should be optimum.

Literature Review of Computerized Evaluation of Water Supply Reliability

There are many research have been done in the field of the water supply system. The design of the infrastructure has many method and design consideration is done. In many research has been done in the field of the water supply system. The important component of the water supply system is the treatment of the water supply. The author D.galovaski has written in this book that the treatment is the crucial thing in the water supply chain. Many research has method has been discovered in the field of the treatment of water. Because in generalize way the main thing is the treatment of water before supply of the water and because of this the main section for the research is the many method of water supply. The part of research is also a little more in the distribution system. The wolf walker has written in his book that there are many distribution system pattern for the distribution of pure water. The pattern of the distribution pipe is depend on the city condition and development of the city. The topography also plays an important role for the distribution system. The N D.gujral has written that there are many method for the treatment of water and this depend on the which type of the water we have to do the treatment. For example if the ground water has to be treated then simple settling of the particle and the chlorination is enough for the this. If the source of the water is the river than palm sedimentation aeration flocculation and chlorination is done. All the method mainly depend on the water type and source of the water supply. The distribution system is also design by the hardy cross method. The treated water is pumped and stored in a elevated distribution reservoir or tank and from the distribution tank it is fed to the distribution system. The pump works at constant and convenient sechulde and pressure can be maintained uniformly during the supply of the water. Water is supplied at mostly at peak hours or of the shortage of water is there then the whole distribution area is divided into different zone at different fixed timings. Analysis of network pipe is done by the hardy cross method. In this system of analysis a distribution of flow in the network is assumed and resulting head losses are balanced. Formula for the pipe flow are used to evaluate losses and successive correction are made in the flow until the network is hydraulically balanced. The other method equivalent pipe method in which different small loops are replaced by an imaginary single equivalent pipe having same discharge capacities and causing same head loss. The distribution and the treatment of the water is the main component for whole supply of the water. The water supply is defined as the fulfillment of the water demand of the continuously increasing population by the optimum quantity and quality of water through the designed network of pipes. The water supply system needs many things such as the infrastructure for the collection purification tramission, treatment and storage of the water. For the supply of the water in the distribution system of the city includes all the demand such as the commercial public and industrial. The distribution system is also design by the hardy cross method. The treated water is pumped and stored in a elevated distribution reservoir or tank and from the distribution tank it is fed to the distribution system

Methodology of Computerized Evaluation of Water Supply Reliability

For the design of the water system supply there are following method which is used in the design. There are four process which is used to design the water supply system. The water is forest come from the source and tested for the quality of the water, and then the treatment of the water is done. After the treatment of water the water is distributed to the whole area by the help of the pipe. . The treatment is started with the sedimentation and end with the chlorination. The first as the water coming from the ground the water contains some dissolved oxide. These type of dissolved oxide can be taken out from the water with the help of the aeration. The dissolved minerals such as iron and manganese get out from the water. After the sedimentation is done if there is any solid particle present. If no any solid particle is present than directly the chlorination can be done and the water can be stored to the reservoir. Of the water is taken from the river than the river water have more suspended particle and other impurities if necessary the pre chlorination is also done. After that the sedimentation is done and the sediment particle get out from the water. But of the suspended particle are of size of the colloid then the flocculation and sedimentation will be done in the flocculation the small particle get deposited on the alum particle and get deposited on the base of the sedimentation tank. After this the filtration will be done. The filtration will be done by slow sand filter and rapid sand filter. The selection of filter depend on the load of suspended material in the water. If it is less then slow sand filter will be used but if the suspended particle is more than it can be filtered through the rapid sand filter. The four process which is involved in the design of the water supply system is given below-

  • Source selection- for the supply of the water the selection of the source is necessary. The selection of source is mainly depend on the nearby source available. The source may be pond the ground water or the river system. The source is selected by considering the distance of the treatment plant and the source. The distance between the source and the treatment plant should be minimum. The other consideration for the selection of the source is the cost of the treatment. If the cost of the treatment is less and the distance is little or more than the economic consideration is important. If the distance is more but the abundance of water available from the river than the cost of per liter water is less. And the cost of pipe is more but it is finally economical than the ground water. The cost of taking out the ground water is much more although the treatment cost is less for the ground water. Many method has some benefit and some loss .so over all thing is that the given method will be economical.
  • Characteristics of water- After the selection of source the next thing is to analyze the characteristics of water. How much the water contains the suspended solid settable solid and other organic matter. The nutrient that found in the water. The pH of the water is checked the colour and the chemical impurities that present in the water is also analysed. All the detail of the water characteristics is listed and a best method for the treatment of the given water is designed. All the construction work should be done after the design.
  • Treatment of the water. After finding the characteristics of the water the main part of the water supply system is the treatment. The treatment is started with the sedimentation and end with the chlorination. The first as the water coming from the ground the water contains some dissolved oxide. These type of dissolved oxide can be taken out from the water with the help of the aeration. The dissolved minerals such as iron and manganese get out from the water. After the sedimentation is done if there is any solid particle present. If no any solid particle is present than directly the chlorination can be done and the water can be stored to the reservoir. Of the water is taken from the river than the river water have more suspended particle and other impurities if necessary the pre chlorination is also done. After that the sedimentation is done and the sediment particle get out from the water. But of the suspended particle are of size of the colloid then the flocculation and sedimentation will be done in the flocculation the small particle get deposited on the alum particle and get deposited on the base of the sedimentation tank. After this the filtration will be done. The filtration will be done by slow sand filter and rapid sand filter. The selection of filter depend on the load of suspended material in the water. If it is less then slow sand filter will be used but if the suspended particle is more than it can be filtered through the rapid sand filter. After the filtration of the water the chlorination is done and the supply of water to the water distribution system is done.
  • Distribution of water – the distribution of water is done by two method the first one is the intermittent distribution and second one is the continuous distribution. The water supply is defined as the fulfillment of the water demand of the continuously increasing population by the optimum quantity and quality of water through the designed network of pipes. The water supply system needs many things such as the infrastructure for the collection purification tramission, treatment and storage of the water. For the supply of the water in the distribution system of the city includes all the demand such as the commercial public and industrial. The distribution system is also design by the hardy cross method. The treated water is pumped and stored in a elevated distribution reservoir or tank and from the distribution tank it is fed to the distribution system. The distribution of the water is done in such a way that the distribution of water is according to the height of the building and the persons lives in that building. The distribution system is also analyzed by the meter installed at every doors of the house. The leakage of the distribution pipe is also need to check properly.

The strip of land lying between the source of water supply and the distribution area is surveyed to obtain the levels for fixing up the alignment of the rising main. This main will carry treated water to the distribution reservoir(s) located in the distribution area. The distribution area is also surveyed and detailed maps of are prepared showing the positions of roads, streets, lanes, residential areas, commercial locality, industrial areas, gardens etc. A topographical map of the area is prepared to locate the high and low areas. The cross section of streets, roads, lanes, etc. is prepared, showing the position of existing underground service lines like electric and telephone lines, sewer lines, existing water supply lines

Result Ans Discussion on Computerized Evaluation of Water Supply Reliability

Human life, as with all animal and plant life on the planet, is dependent upon water. Not only do we need water to grow our food, generate our power and run our industries, but we need it as a basic part of our daily lives - our bodies need to ingest water every day to continue functioning. "Basic needs of about175 litres per person per day". It includes the need for water to maintain a basic standard of personal and domestic hygiene sufficient to maintain health. The effects of inadequate water supply causes disease,time and energy expended in daily collection, high unit costs, etc. provision of basic daily water needs is yet to be regarded by many countries as a human right Based on the density of the population, type of distribution district (residential, commercial etc) and fire fighting and other requirements, the discharge required from each pipeline is calculated. The fire hydrants are placed at 50 to 100m intervals on straight runs, and on street junctions. The size of the distribution pipes are fixed such that a minimum necessary pressure head is maintained at all points, carrying peak hourly flow through them. The pipes should be designed for a discharge ranging from 2.25 to 3 times the average rate of supply. For populations over 50,000, the distribution mains should have a capacity of 225% of average rate of supply, while for population below 5000; the distribution pipes should have a capacity of 300% for the average rate of supply. The flow required for firefighting should be added to this maximum flow, to get the total flow. The pipes should be able to carry this total flow without excessive pressure drops. . The scouring can be minimize by sacrificial piles placed upstream in the pier, slots through the pier, riprap and gabion placed around the pier and collar around the pier. In this study we focus on the minimizing the effect of the scouring at the pier of bridge. The scouring of river can be minimize by controlling the velocity. The velocity can control by river training work. The scouring can be minimize efficiently with the help of pier slot and pier collars. The shape of pier slot and pier collars has different capacity to stop the scouring. The slot of the pier help in reducing the strength of horseshoe vertex because the effective diameter of the pier decreased. The collar try to change the direction of vertex motion of water that results into less scouring. The slots and collar are very helpful in controlling the scouring. Different type shapes of slots and collar has different effect on the scouring depth. It includes the need for water to maintain a basic standard of personal and domestic hygiene sufficient to maintain health. The effects of inadequate water supply causes disease,time and energy expended in daily collection, high unit costs, etc. provision of basic daily water needs is yet to be regarded by many countries as a human right Based on the density of the population, type of distribution district (residential, commercial etc) and fire fighting and other requirements, the discharge required from each pipeline is calculated.

EPANET is a computer program that performs extended period simulation of hydraulic and water quality behavior within pressurized pipe networks. A network consists of pipes, nodes (pipe junctions), pumps, valves and storage tanks or reservoirs. EPANET tracks the flow of water in each pipe, the pressure at each node, the height of water in each tank, and the concentration of a chemical species throughout the network during a simulation period comprised of multiple time steps. In addition to chemical species, water age and source tracing can also be simulated. EPANET is designed to be a research tool for improving our understanding of the movement and fate of drinking water constituents within distribution systems. It can be used for many different kinds of applications in distribution systems analysis.

Conclusion on Computerized Evaluation of Water Supply Reliability

The water is the second important thing for the people after the air and a pure water should be available for each and every person in the world. The supply of pure water is also necessary for the people. The percentage of pure water is not very much as compared to the water available on the earth. For the design of water supply system a huge analysis should be done before the analysis because the design depends on many things such as population get benefitted by the system the location where the water for supply is to taken from. The distribution system and the distribution plan of the pure water supply. The supply of the water to the people is given by measuring the water with help of measuring meter. In this work, the water distribution system has been design with the help of EPANET in which we use number of nodes, elevation, number of pipes and demands of Kathgarh area. First we surveyed the area and take information about the population and per capita demand of the people. And according to that we design the distribution system for the area. The method of distribution used here is combined gravity and pumping system as firstly the water is pumped with the help of centrifugal pumps from underground water source i.e. from aquifers and then they are lifted up to the overhead water tanks and through there with the help of gravity system is transferred to the main rising pipe.

References for Computerized Evaluation of Water Supply Reliability

Prasad, T.D., and Park, N. (2004).Multiobjective genetic algorithms for design of water distribution networks,

Journal of water resources planning and management, ASCE, 130(1), 73-82.

Propato, M., and Uber, J.G., Vulnerability of water distribution systems to pathogen intrusion: How effective is a

disinfectant residual, Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 38, 2004, pp. 3713-3722.

Quimpo, R. G., &Shamsi, U. M. (1991). Reliability based distribution system maintenance. Journal of Water

Resources Planning and Management Division, 117(3), 321–339.

Rossman, L. A. (1994). EPANET User Manual, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, US Environmental

Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, 107 pp; www. epa. gov/ORD/NRMRL/ wswrd/ epanet.html.

Shamsi, U. (1990). Computerized evaluation of water supply reliability. IEEE Transaction on Reliability, 39(1), 35–

Sridharan, U., Mohankumar, M.S. (2003). Top down assessment and modeling of Bangalore city water distribution

Wagner, J. M., Shamir, U., & Marks, D. H. (1988b). Water distribution reliability: Simulation methods. Journal of

Water Resources Planning and Management Division, 114(3), 276–294.

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