Building Organisational Capacity In Health Care

Changes are considered to be an effective method to sustain as an organization and individual associated with the organization should utilize their skill to continuously adapt the changes in the organization. The collaboration is one of the methods that can be utilized to adapt to the change that helps the individual to adjust according to the organizational changes (Kotter & Schlesinger, 2008). Leaders shape the working pattern of the individual associated with the organization and contribute to utilizing an innovative method to implement change in the organization. There are many leadership styles but every individual utilizes a different style that helps them to utilize innovative idea for conducting the changes (Sarros et al., 2008). The essay is going to discuss the leadership and role of the leader in the changes process of the organization. The essay also discusses how the leader in the health-related organization facilitates the change so that it can be easily implemented.

The changing health care system due to increase diversity of the patient increases the requirement to change the system to improve the synergy in the system. The study proposed by Stanley (2011) describes the importance of clinical leadership in health care and study also identified that how clinical leadership can help to increase the implementation of the change in the health care setting. The clinical leadership not only help to manage the different changes process but it also helps to encourage colleagues to participate in change and develop leadership skills. The study tries to increase the understanding of the importance of clinical leadership in the health care setting and how the leader can help in the implementation of the changes. On the other hand, the article presented by Jacobs et al. (2013) provides that organization culture directly impacts the leadership style and the organizational culture affect the performance of the individual in the organization.

The article describes the different aspects of the organizational culture that affect the leadership style of the individual. The research indicates that organizational culture directly an impact over the efficiency of the workforce by improving the sharing the values, belief and guideline of the organization. The organizational cultural directly affect the decision-making ability of the leadership that is utilized to increase the adaptability of the changes. The study presented by different leadership style in the health care setting like the participative leader, adaptive leader, uniform leader and acquisitive leader. The article concluded that organizational culture directly influences the leadership settle that is necessary to implement the changes in the organization.

The rapid change in the technology, demographic, organizational culture and individual need require the organization to change according to the market. The changes that are needed to be incorporated in the organization should be performed by the effective leadership of the individual. The leader plays a play an important role in the preparation and reframes the organisational structure by changing the working flow by collaborative participation of the employees of the organization. The leaders are expected to maintain the equilibrium between the current capability of the workforce and utilizing skill for the development of new capability of the workforce. The leader is expected to form the vision for the changes with the workforce that help to easy implementation of the change in the workforce and improve organization results (Carroll, 2002).

The organizational culture that directly impacts the leadership in the health care system has two aspects that include culture as attitude and culture as a metaphor. The culture as attitude has some points like it is considered to be the more adaptive different mechanism and senior staff is involved to implement change to meet the corporate objectives. The culture as a metaphor is considered to be the aspect that includes cultural conflict result in change and all the members are involved in change by negotiating. Leadership play a central role in the transformation of the organization culture by using the appropriate leadership style. The first leadership style includes transactional leadership that involved securing organisational compliance. The second leadership style includes a transformational style that inspires the cognitive change by increasing understanding toward changes information (Scott et al., 2003).

The Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (2017) proposed the Developing a safety and quality framework which aim to improve the health care setting by reducing the chances of harm or injury that can occur due to irrelevant action of the health care professional or health care setting. The framework focused over the different aspect that associated with health care to improve the health care setting that includes error research, quality improvement technique and change management. The framework also discussed that to implement these changes in the health care setting effective leadership is require the proper implementation of the changes that are required concerning the framework. There is a need for the collaboration of effective leadership with government structure to shape the health care setting by implementing the changes.

The study presented by the Gill (2002) discusses that one of the difficulties faced by the health care setting in changing the working procedure is difficulty in the implementation of the change because of the reluctant behaviour of the workforce. The article presented the correct implementation of the changes requires the proper planning, organized and controlled by the effective leader. The study presented that an effective leader can help to introduce the change in the workforce by increasing their understanding of the need for the change. The leader can help the workforce to understand the need for the change by utilizing the different interpersonal skills to accurately implement the change. The article describes that leader utilizes corporate value to understand the need of the change in respect to the health care setting and good communication is utilizing by the leader to increase understanding of the workforce regarding the need of the change.

The team building is also one of the features of the leader that is required to implement the change and leader can educate the team to correctly implement the change. Moreover, the article presented by the Marquis and Huston (2015) suggests that there are different theory that is related to correct implementation of the change in the organization. The article discussed the Kurt Lewin theory that includes the three-phase cycle for the proper implementation of the change in the health care setting. The first phase includes an unfreezing phase in which leader convince the workforce regarding the change and the second phase include movement in which leader identify the correct plan, implement strategies and different driving force that is required to implement the change. The last phase of the theory includes refreezing which include leader to stabilize the change and integrate into the working practice.

The health care transformation leads to increase power to the nurses as they play a central role during patient care. Nursing leadership is considered to be the key component in the nursing profession that is directly related to better health outcome of the patient. The leadership in the nursing profession is considered to bridge the gap between the policy and nursing practise that directly help to improve the health care services. The nursing leaders are considered to focus on both internal and external aspect to improve the working practice by incorporating the change that is required to improve practise. The internal factors that are considered by nursing leader include collaboration between academics, management and clinical domains to utilize nursing knowledge during care. The external factors that are to be considered by the leader include socio-political aspect, workforce attitude and health-related policy (Antrobus & Kitson, 1999).

The article presented by Siriwardena (2006) discusses that leadership is one of the individual skills that requires the sense of visionary direction for the organization. The leader should share the vision with the workforce to improve the working practice that will help to the improved working environment of the health care setting. Clinical leadership is one of the important components of the health care setting to improve the proper implementation of the changes for the welfare of the organization. The clinical leaders are expected to utilize their different skill like credibility among peers, expertise, support clinical teams, education skills and motivating the workforce. The clinical leadership helps the organization to accurately implement the changes that are required to improve the practice of health care.

The clinical leadership is responsible to shape the health care setting and utilize their clinical skill to improve the working practice that benefits the organization, workforce and patients. Another study conducted by Ham (2003) describe that reformation in health care is required to improve working practise and there is the different factor that directly associated with change. The implementation of the change to improve the health care system influenced by the different factor like a partnership, manages the competition, managed care and integrated care. The change implementation in health care requires engaging action of the clinical leader and colleagues to utilize innovation for changing the working pattern of the health care setting. The leader requires the different skill to improve the health-care setting and effective leadership help to redesign the working practice to improve the working practice.

The changing health care information system demand accurate workflow due to the increasing complexity of the health care associates. Effective leadership is one of the important aspects of the smooth workflow in the health care system. The leader helps to unite the voice for the health care associates regarding changing procedure or increasing awareness regarding the health information. The health care information can get a single point solution by the leader as he/she can help to increase understanding of the health professional reading the different technique and method that can improve the health care information. In the health care setting the leader has three roles that are require improving the health care setting which includes strategic role, operational role and educating role (Daly et al. 2014). 

Moreover, the article presented by Crisp (2000) discussed that capacity building is one of the important factors for the implementation of the change. The capacity building includes the different strategy that to be applied to the change that is required to build up a better health care setting. Different capacity building approaches include top-down, bottom-up, and partnership and community organization. The capacity-building provide a good relationship skill that aims to improve the bond between the recipient and provider to understand the need for the changes that can is required in the health care setting. The article describes the need for capacity building in the health care setting to implement the change. One of the studies presented by the Heward et al., (2007) describe the use of the capacity building skill to implement the change by using the organizational change force model that is the staged process.

The complexity of the organization makes it is a layered process that results in the implementation of the change in the working process that starts from the broadest level of the organization and ends up at individual staff member. The model prosed that organizational change should be implemented by maintaining the equilibrium between the organization driving force and change restraining force. The method that is applied according to the model includes unfreezing of the organizational change followed by the implementation of the desired changes and last include refreezing the changes by increasing sustainability in the organization. There are the different factors that directly affect the implementation of the desired state which includes readiness of the change, reducing the resisting force and last include understanding the organizational changes.

One of the articles presented by Amanchukwu et al., (2015) describes the different leadership theories that can be applied by the organizational leader to implement the change. One of the leadership theories discussed in the article is “Great Man” theory which state that leaders are born with the inherent leadership quality and it depicts the leader as the hero that can deal with any situation. On the hand trait theory discussed by the article that discusses that people inherit a certain trait that improves their leadership quality and identifies the individual personality, behaviour responsible to increase chances for being a leader. The theory as per the article is contingency theory which suggests that a particular variable that is related to environmental that directly influence the leadership style according to the work. The situational theory describes that leader identify the best action that should be performed according to the current situation that is required for the decision making. The article described the behavioural leadership quality that state that the individual is made leader but not born with it and the individual is required to improve skill to improve the process.

The article suggested that the leader should utilize the appropriate clinical skill during the implementation of the change to modify the working practice and collaborate with team members to easy implementation of the change. One of the articles presented by the Marquis & Huston, (2015) describes different leadership quality that is required according to the leadership theories. Different leadership qualities are required to easily implement the change by creating a positive attitude of the workforce regarding the implementation of the change. The characteristics associated with leadership include intelligence, judgment, emotional intelligence and decisiveness. Some other qualities that can enhance the skill of the leader include creativity, cooperativeness, alertness and self-confidence. These different characteristics of the leadership help the individual to understand the different aspect of the change followed by increasing understanding of the workforce regarding the requirement of the change. The last step includes slow and steady implementation of the change by ensuring the benefit of all the related aspect.

Many different factors have a direct impact on the decrease chances of change that are directly related to the organization. The factor can be external or internal depending upon the type of change is implemented. The first factor that directly resists the change includes political force as it has a greater impact over the health care factor and different sources that are involved in the political forces include government, health authority and health care policies. The second forces that can decrease the chances for change to be well implemented include economic force as it is the main sources of the change. The employee's force is also one of the important factors as the main players to implement the change. Decreased resources are decreasing the chances of change as sometimes due to lack of resources workforce is unable to implement the change that can be beneficial for the organization. These are the few factors that have direct influence over the organization change in the health care setting and maintaining proper equilibrium with different factor can lead to the better workflow of the organization (Jones, 2007).

There is the different method that can help to cope with the organizational change and these can be implemented to improve the working procedure. The first aspect that can assist in change includes adding position and departments to help to monitor the effect of the change with the health care setting. Building a relationship is also one of the important aspects to promote the change which includes coordination of the key elements. The next aspect includes differentiation and integration includes differentiation of the cognitive and emotional orientation of the leader. The last aspect includes planning and responsiveness toward the change in the organization by integrating the different aspect of the change. These changes can help the organization to easily implement the change in the organization by improvising the working procedure of the organization for easy implementation (Daft, 2007). 

The accurate implementation of the organizational change requires equal participation of the workforce with the leader to improve the working practises. The increased result of the changes can be observed when the workforce is fairly participating in the change. Thus, to improve the change implementation workforce development is required that include improving the skill and technical education related to the health care setting. There are many proposed models that is utilized for the workforce development that helps to increase the awareness of the individual regarding different skill that is required to manage the workflow. The first approach that can be utilized for workforce development to improve change implementation includes a component of capacity building. This approach utilizes two broad categories workforce sustainability and management by supervision. According to the capacity-building framework different component is required to build the capacity for the change. The different component is required include organizational development, workforce development, resources allocation, partnership and effective leadership that collectively lead to change.

Another model for workforce development includes a strategic imperative model which state that five-component are necessary for the workforce development that leads to a positive effect over the organizational change. The five components include organizational development, retention and recruitment, infrastructure development, training and research with evaluation (NCOSS, 2007). Another model that is considered one of the most effective for workforce development is known as the three-approach model. The three levels that are included in this workforce development model include system, current workforce and future workforce. The article also discussed the different factor that can directly influence the workforce development including education, training, workforce development strategies, skills, workplace structure and related policy. The article also discussed that increasing complexity of the health care system increase the need for workforce development for effective change management (Roche, 2000).

The essay concluded that leadership is considered to be the most important aspect of the health care system. The leader plays a major role in the implementation of the changes in the health care setting. The clinical leadership plays an important role in the health care setting and it is also influenced by the organization culture. The increasing complexity of the health care sector increases the need to change the working procedure to improve the practice and effective leader has required an increasing understanding of the workforce regarding the need for the changes. There is the different factor that resists the change in the organization that includes an external and internal factor that is to be addressed by the leader to decrease the resistance faced by the change in the organization. The major players in the implementation of the change are workforce and the leader can conduct workforce development by using a different model to improve their understanding of the need of the organization.

References for Building Organisational Capacity In Health Care

Amanchukwu, R. N., Gloria Jones Stanley, G. J. & Ololube, N. P. (2015). A review of leadership theories, principles and styles and their relevance to educational management. Management, 5(1), 6-14. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.mm.20150501.02

Antrobus, S., & Kitson, A. (1999). Nursing leadership: influencing and shaping health policy and nursing practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 29(3), 746–753. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.1999.00945.x

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. (2017). Standards. https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/standards

Carroll, J. S. (2002). Leading organisational learning in health care. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 11(1), 51–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/qhc.11.1.51

Crisp, B. R. (2000). Four approaches to capacity building in health: consequences for measurement and accountability. Health Promotion International, 15(2), 99–107. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/15.2.99

Daft, R. (2007). Organization theory and design. Cengage Learning.

Daly, J., Speedy, S. & Jackson, D. (2014). Leading and managing in nursing practice. Elsevier.

Gill, R. (2002). Change management--or change leadership? Journal of Change Management, 3(4), 307–318. https://doi.org/10.1080/714023845

Ham, C. (2003). Improving performance of health services: the role of clinical leadership. Lancet, 361(9373), 1978-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13593-3

Heward, S., Hutchins, C. & Kelleher, H. (2007). Organizational change- Key to capacity building and effective health promotion. Health Promotion International, 22(2). http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.586.406&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Jones, G.R. (2007). Organizational theory, design and change. Pearson Education.

Kotter, J. P. & Schlesinger, L. A. (2008). Choosing strategies for change. Harvard Business Review, 86(7/8), 130-139. https://projects.iq.harvard.edu/files/sdpfellowship/files/day3_2_choosing_strategies_for_change.pdf

Marquis, B.J., & Huston, C. J. (2015). Leadership roles and functions in nursing: Theory and application (8th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

NCOSS, (2007). Models of Workforce Development. https://www.ncoss.org.au/search/node/Model%20of%20workforce%20development

Roche, A.M. (2000). What is this thing called Workforce Development? http://nceta.flinders.edu.au/files/7712/5548/1891/EN91.pdf

Sarros, J.C., Cooper, B.K., & Santora, J.C. (2008). Building a climate for innovation through transformational leadership and organisational culture. Journal of Leadership & Organisational Studies, 15(2), 145-158. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051808324100

Scott, T., Mannion, R., Davies, H. T. O., Marshall, M. I. (2003). Implementing culture change in health care: theory and practice. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 15(2), 111–118. https://doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzg021

Siriwardena, A. N. (2006). Releasing the potential of health services: translating clinical leadership into healthcare quality improvement. Quality in Primary Care, 14(3), 125-128. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.820.780&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Stanley, D. (2011). Clinical Leadership. Palgrave McMillan.

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