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1.1 What is a fever? Explain how Peter’s fever developed.
The fever is considered to be the elevate body temperature of the individual that occur due to misbalance in homeostasis. The rise in body temperature occurs in collaboration with the increase in the hypothalamic set point that leads to an increase in oxygen consumption. The body temperature above then the 36.6-37.2 Celsius is considered to be the fever and there are different classes of the fever concerning the range in which hyperpyrexia is considered to be the emergency state (Cunha et al., 2015). The influenza virus has started the infection that leads to the prognosis of the fever as it is the sign that the body is defending against the foreign pathogen. The study presented by Guillebaud et al. (2018) discussed that viral infection leads to the prognosis of the fever that can differ corresponding to the virus type and stage of the infection.
1.2 State, with explanation, two benefits of fever.
The increased body temperature is important to inhibit the multiplication of the infectious agent that decreases the prognosis of the infection. · The increased body temperature is also important to triggering the immune system that speeds up the cytokine release and phagocytosis (Evans et al., 2015).
2.1 Given that influenza is caused by a virus, why has Peter prescribed an antibiotic?
The infection caused by the influenza virus lowered the immunity of the patient that directly increases the susceptibility of the patient to acquire another infection. The antibiotics are prescribed to decrease the chances of the secondary infection that can add the health-related complication to the patient. The article presented by Manohar et al. (2020) discussed that during viral infection secondary bacterial infection are common thus precautions are necessary to reduce the risk of further complication. During influenza, there are great chances that patient acquire the secondary bacterial infection that need to be addressed by antibiotics to decrease complication
2.2 The doctor prescribed phenoxymethylpenicillin. Discuss the mode of action of phenoxymethylpenicillin.
Phenoxymethylpenicillin is considered to be the narrow-spectrum antibiotic that is involved in the bactericidal action to decrease the prognosis of the infection. It usually targets the bacterial at the multiplication stage to stop the cell wall synthesis that leads to the death of the bacteria. It directly inhibits the formation of the mucopeptide that is important for the cell wall synthesis. The Phenoxymethylpenicillin directly attach to the penicillin-binding protein by decreasing their function they hamper the third and fourth phase of the bacterial cell wall synthesis that causes lysis (Drug Bank, 2019).
2.3 Explain why antibiotics are not effective against viruses.
The basic working model of the antibiotics is to alter bacterial machinery that directly hampers their production and lead to the death of the bacterial. But when it comes to viruses they do not have any machinery for their synthesis they use host machinery to replicate and prognosis infection thus antibiotics have no action against viruses. The antibiotics are ineffective for the viral infection as a virus using the human cell machinery for replicating thus they have to destroy human cell that for hampering the replication (Tanday, 2016).
3.1 Name and describe two (2) possible ways that Peter could have contracted the influenza virus (modes of transmission).
There are many modes of transmission of the influenza virus and two of them are · Droplet: The aerosol that has been released by the infectious patient can lead to the transfer of the infection · Fomites: The droplet from the patient can also reach to the nearby object that also acts as the mode of the transmission (Charu et al., 2017; World health organization, 2019).
3.2 Identify and explain two (2) ways by which the modes of transmission could be broken
The two methods that can be used to break the chain of the mode of transmission · Hand hygiene is important to decrease the transmission of the infectious agent as carriers can also act as a reservoir for the infection.
The vaccine is important to improve the memory of the body concerning the infection so that the body immune system can have the memory to fight back with the infection (Luca et al., 2018).
4.1 Describe the physiological basis of the first sign in Peter’s throat. Relate your response to this case study.
The infection caused by the viruses directly affects the throat that leads to the swallowing difficulty causing the sore throat which increasing pain and dryness in the throat. The sore throat leads to the irritation of the throat that occurs due to the inflammation. The pain increases the issue while the swallowing that leads to loss of appetite which directly deteriorates the health of the patient. The pricking sensation of the throat increases the coughing that increases breathing issue to the patient. Sometimes the itchy sensation is also observed in the patient suffering from the sore throat that also adds uneasiness (Yang, et al., 2015). The patient is feeling unwell due to the sore throat as it directly decreases the water and food intake which lead to the deteriorating effect over the health.
4.2 Describe the physiological basis of the second sign in Peter’s throat. Relate your response to this case study.
The second sign that can be observed in the patient suffering from influenza includes redness that is considered to be a diagnostic sign for the pharyngitis. The redness of the tonsils occurs due to the increased inflammation that can be acute or chronic concerning the rate of prognosis. The swelling of the tonsil for the throat wall is also prominent during the pharyngitis and it increases the swallowing
complication due to the which water and food intake decrease. The redness and swelling occur when there is an increased progression of influenza (Regoli et al., 2011). The redness and swelling are also observed in the patient after the assessment that has also increase the discomfort in the swallowing of any substance that directly decreased the appetite.
4.3 Describe the physiological basis of the third sign in Peter’s throat. Relate your response to this case study.
The persistent infection leads to the enlargement of the tonsils that occur due to the inflammation caused by the infectious agent. The enlargement of the lymph node is also observed in the severe case that can lead to increase complication for the patient. The enlargements of the lymph node occur in the response of the infection and it is one of the diagnostic sign of the infection. The body in response to extreme infection leads to the enlargement of the tonsil of the lymph node as a sign for the infection (Oliver et al., 2018). The patient also diagnosed with the lymphadenopathy and patchy covering over the tonsil that is the sign of the inflammation that directly provoked the immune response lead to the enlargement of the lymph node.
5.1 Compare and contrast the processes by which viruses and bacteria replicate
The replication process in the bacteria follows the simple rule in which parental strands of the DNA are copied to synthesise the new strand of the daughter cell. Both strands of the DNA is copied semi-conservatively in the bidirectional manners that lead to the synthesis of two new strands. The three steps of the replication include initiation, elongation and termination that lead to the transfer of
the genetic material to the daughter cell (Trojanowski et al., 2017). On the other hand viruses are the intracellular obligate parasite thus they hire the host machinery for the replication process. They do not have the necessary enzyme that is required to initiate and complete the replication. Seven steps are involved in the viral application that starts with the attachment followed by penetration. The next step is the early virus gene expression that is followed by the replication of the virus nucleic acid that leads to the synthesis of the different virion component. The last two steps include the assembly of the virion particle followed by packing after which the packed cell exits from the host cell (York, 2019). The main differences that separate the bacterial and virus replication include bacteria have self-machinery to start and finish the replication. Moreover, the virus replication process has to hire the host machinery for the replication process.
Charu, V., Zeger, S., Gog, J., Bjørnstad, O. N., Kissler, S., Simonsen, L. & Viboud, C. (2017). Human mobility and the spatial transmission of influenza in the United States. PLOS Computational Biology, 13(2), 1-23. DOI:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005382
Cunha, B. A., Lortholary, O. & Cunha, C. B. (2015). Fever of unknown origin: a clinical approach. The American Journal of Medicine, 128(10), e1-e15. DOI:10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.06.001
Drug Bank. (2019). Phenoxymethylpenicillin. Retrieved from: https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00417
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Guillebaud, J., Bernardson, B., Randriambolamanantsoa, T. H., Randrianasolo, L., Randriamampionona, J. L., Marino, C. A. & Héraud, J.-M. (2018). Study on causes of fever in primary healthcare center uncovers pathogens of public health concern in Madagascar. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 12(7), 1-15. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006642
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Luca, G. D., Kerckhove, K. V., Coletti, P., Poletto, C., Bossuyt, N., Hens, N. & Colizza, V. (2018). The impact of regular school closure on seasonal influenza epidemics: a data-driven spatial transmission model for Belgium. BMC Infectious Diseases, 18(1), 1-16. DOI: 10.1186/s12879-017-2934-3
Manohar, P., Loh, B., Nachimuthu, R., Hua, X., Welburn, S. C., & Leptihn, S. (2020). Secondary bacterial infections in patients with viral pneumonia. Frontiers in Medicine, 7, 1-8. DOI:10.3389/fmed.2020.00420
Oliver, J., Malliya Wadu, E., Pierse, N., Moreland, N. J., Williamson, D. A., & Baker, M. G. (2018). Group A Streptococcus pharyngitis and pharyngeal carriage: A meta-analysis. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 12(3). DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006335
Regoli, M., Chiappini, E., Bonsignori, F., Galli, L. & de Martino, M. (2011). Update on the management of acute pharyngitis in children. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 37(1), 1-7. DOI: 10.1186/1824-7288-37-10
Tanday, S. (2016). Resisting the use of antibiotics for viral infections. The lancet Respiratory Medicine, 4(3), 179. DOI: 10.1016/s2213-2600(16)00060-6
Trojanowski, D., Hołówka, J., Ginda, K., Jakimowicz, D. & Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, J. (2017). Multifork chromosome replication in slow-growing bacteria. Scientific Reports, 7(1). 1-7 DOI: 10.1038/srep43836
World health organization. 2019. Influenza. Retrieve from: https://www.who.int/influenza/surveillance_monitoring/bod/en/
Yang, J.-H., Huang, P.-Y., Shie, S.-S., Yang, S., Tsao, K.-C., Wu, T.-L. & Huang, C.-T. (2015). Predictive Symptoms and Signs of Laboratory-confirmed Influenza. Medicine, 94(44). DOI:10.1097/md.0000000000001952
York, A. (2019). Turning off the lights on virus replication. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 17, 463. DOI:10.1038/s41579-019-0231-4
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