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1.1 What is a fever? Explain how Peter’s fever developed.
In cases of acute infections, fever is defined as an increase in body temperature as a response of the body against a pathological manifestation (Yang et al., 2018). Fever develops when the hypothalamus of an individual is at a temperature higher than normal. This setting of increased temperature occurs due to pyrogens that are small molecules present in the blood (Presterl et al., 2019). Peter has developed a fever in response to the influenza infection in the body. Fever is a response of innate immunity of the system and signals action of immunity against the pathogen (Wiwanitkit, 2016).
1.2 State, with explanation, two benefits of fever.
A. Prevents action of the pathogen: Fever is beneficial as the increase in body temperature helps the innate immunity to fight the infection. Many pathogens and their mode of infection are successful only at specific body temperatures. When the body temperature rises in fever, the pathogen is not able to perform actively in the host and spread any further (Presterl et al., 2019). Thus, this helps the immune system of the body to act against the pathogen and promotes recovery. B. Immunity against pathogen: Fever is also associated with enhanced production of white blood cells in the body. The White blood cells are crucial components of the immune system and are required for effective action of the immune system and maintain health (Lee et al., 2020). Through increased production of the white blood cells, the body is ready to fight the infection and prevent further exacerbation of the illness (Yang et al., 2018).
2.1 Given that influenza is caused by a virus, why was Peter prescribed an antibiotic?
Antibiotics are given in cases of viral infections as an additive precaution and to ease the symptoms of the viral disease (Lee et al., 2020). Antibiotics as an additive precaution help in the prevention of development of secondary infections at the time of viral disease the body is weak. Furthermore, signs and symptoms like fever and cold are eased with antibiotics and this comforts the patient while they recover from the viral infection (Cannon et al., 2018).
2.2 The doctor prescribed phenoxymethylpenicillin. Discuss the mode of action of phenoxymethylpenicillin.
Mode of action of phenoxymethylpenicillin is that it works against the penicillin-sensitive microbes in the body. The drug has bactericidal effects and acts against the bacteria by interfering with the peptidoglycan wall synthesises (Chen et al., 2020). This drug is used to kill the bacteria through binding at the beta-lactam ring of the DD transpeptidase in the bacterial wall. The inhibits the cross-linking of through the glycans and hinders the cell wall formation in bacteria. With a poorly developed cell wall, the bacteria fail to survive in the normal environment and undergoes cell lysis due to osmotic dysregulation (Manohar et al., 2020).
2.3 Explain why antibiotics are not effective against viruses.
Viruses do not possess a similar structure as that of the bacteria. Most antibiotics target the cell wall, whereas, in the case of viruses, a similar structure is missing (Patel et al., 2016). Viruses do not replicate by themselves but rather use the cellular machinery of the host to replicate and produce more particles. The antibiotics are ineffective in identification of these highly specific molecular mechanisms of cellular reprogramming and viral gene replication (Wiwanitkit, 2016). Therefore, the use of antibiotics remains ineffective for viral disease and infections in the body.
3.1 Name and describe two (2) possible ways that Peter could have contracted the influenza virus (modes of transmission).
Possible ways through which Peter would have contracted the Influenza infection include: 1. Direct contact with infected individuals: The viral particle is transmitted in the body through respiratory droplets and can be contacted by an individual in proximity with a diseased person (Wiwanitkit, 2016) Therefore, it is likely that Peter might have contracted the virus due to last contact or proximity with an individual who was suffering from the influenza infection.
2. Contact with contaminated objects: Viral transmission can also occur when an individual lie Peter may get in touch with a contaminated surface and eventually inhales the virus (Wiwanitkit, 2016). This results in the transmission of the virus from the surface to the body and is also a likely cause of contraction of influenza by Peter
3.2 Identify and explain two (2) ways by which the modes of transmission could be broken
The mode of transmission can be broken by: 1. Covering up mouth and nose while coughing or sneezing: If an infected individual ensures to cover their mouth and nose at the time of coughing or sneezing the spread of the virus can be controlled (Patel et al., 2016). This helps in containing the spread of the respiratory droplets and limits the spread. 2. Good hygiene practices: Good hygiene practices like regular cleaning of hands and surfaces can help in preventing contamination and stop the transmission of the virus from infected individuals to healthy individuals (Manohar et al., 2020).
4.1 Describe the physiological basis of the first sign in Peter’s throat. Relate your response to this case study.
The first sign observed in the throat of Peter is swelling. Swelling in the throat in influenza is caused by the inflammation reaction caused by the viral infection. The viral particle replicates and damages the cells triggering an immune response. As a consequence, swollen glands are observed in the patient. Strep throat may also develop with discomfort in talking and swallowing. The immune system is triggered and a response is obtained from the lymphatic system (Wiwanitkit, 2016). Swollen nodes and glands are thus common in influenza infection.
4.2 Describe the physiological basis of the second sign in Peter’s throat. Relate your response to this case study.
The second sign observed in the throat of Peter is redness. Constant cough and irritability in the throat due to viral infection causes redness in the throat (Chen et al., 2020). Redness is also observed as a response to inflammation in the throat with increased cellular and tissue damage that occurs with constant coughing and irritability (Manohar et al., 2020).
4.3 Describe the physiological basis of the third sign in Peter’s throat. Relate your response to this case study.
The third sign observed in the throat of Peter is the presence of patchy white exudate on the tonsils. The white spots are a sign of infection in the body and are associated with calcium deposits that occur as a white particle due to infection build up in an individual (Presterl et al., 2019). These also signal bacterial manifestation in the body of the patient as a secondary infection along with influenza (Lee et al., 2020).
5.1 Compare and contrast the processes by which viruses and bacteria replicate
Replication in bacteria versus replication in the virus is classically different as they both possess a different genetic and cellular composition. Bacterial cell division is regulated by fission in which the basics of cell regulation, that is the nucleus and cytoplasmic ratio play role in carrying out cell plate formation, karyokinesis and cytokinesis (Altan-Bonnet, 2017). That, the signal to divide through fission is retrieved. The fission in bacteria for division can be binary, that is, one mother cell replicates into two daughter cells or multiple. That is, one mother cell gives rise to multiple daughter cells (Presterl et al., 2019). Binary fission in most bacteria occurs in favourable environments whereas multiple fission is associated with unfavourable environments. Division and replication of virus particles are motivated through infection in a living cell. A virus particle outside host is inert. Once the virus reaches the host cell surface, it injects its nuclear material (DNA or RNA) inside the host cell machinery and controls it through its genes to produce its replicates and then triggers the cell for lysis for release of the viral particles (Presterl et al., 2019). The cell cycle of the virus inside the host cell can be lytic or lysogenic. The lytic life cycle is more common in favourable environmental conditions with lysogeny as a more common mode of replication in the unfavourable conditions (Altan-Bonnet, 2017).
Altan-Bonnet, N. (2017). Lipid tales of viral replication and transmission. Trends in Cell Biology, 27(3), 201-213. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0962892416301532
Cannon, E., Bauer, R., Weust, J., & Southard, E. P. (2018). Nursing management of influenza. Medsurg Nursing, 27(2), 83-85. http://search.proquest.com/openview/3ccae0fddc3bde1fc5ce975f2e7e1ffa/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=30764
Chen, K. K., Minakuchi, M., Wuputra, K., Ku, C. C., Pan, J. B., Kuo, K. K., ... & Yokoyama, K. K. (2020). Redox control in the pathophysiology of influenza virus infection. BMC Microbiology, 20(1), 1-22. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41596-019-0275-y
Lee, M. H., Lee, G. A., Lee, S. H., & Park, Y. H. (2020). A systematic review on the causes of the transmission and control measures of outbreaks in long-term care facilities: Back to basics of infection control. PloS One, 15(3), 0229911. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0229911
Manohar, P., Loh, B., Athira, S., Nachimuthu, R., Hua, X., Welburn, S. C., & Leptihn, S. (2020). Secondary bacterial infections during pulmonary viral disease: Phage therapeutics as alternatives to antibiotics?. Frontiers in Microbiology, 11, 1434. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01434/full?&utm_source=Email_to_authors_&utm_medium=Email&utm_content=T1_11.5e1_author&utm_campaign=Email_publication&field=&journalName=Frontiers_in_Microbiology&id=561097
Patel, S., Vasavada, H., Damor, P., & Parmar, V. (2016). Impact of antibiotic stewardship strategy on the outcome of non-critical hospitalized children with suspected viral infection. Pediatric Infectious Disease, 8(4), 103-106. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221283281630039X
Presterl, E., Diab-El Schahawi, M., & Reilly, J. S. (Eds.). (2019). Basic microbiology and infection control for midwives. Springer International Publishing. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/978-3-030-02026-2.pdf
Wiwanitkit, V. (2016). Short duration fever: Challenge of antibiotic use. Medical Journal of Dr. DY Patil University, 9(1), 30-30. https://go.gale.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA439086805&sid=googleScholar&v=2.1&it=r&linkaccess=abs&issn=09752870&p=AONE&sw=w
Yang, J., Lau, Y. C., Wu, P., Feng, L., Wang, X., Chen, T., ... & He, Y. (2018). Variation in influenza B virus epidemiology by lineage, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24(8), 1536. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6056115/
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