Smoking is injurious to health and it is directly associated with lung cancer. It is one of main underlying risk factor that lead to lung cancer or promote the development of lung cancer in an individual. There are other underlying risk factors as well, but smoking is shown to have a direct impact on an individuals’ health (Laaksonen, 2018). Both first hand and second hand smoking can be fatal for the person, especially if the person is having other respiratory problems as well. This study will help in evaluating the risk of the same in a larger population of men. It will help in determining the various other causative factors leading to lung cancer. It will also help in determining as how effective is the lung screening process in examining the effect of smoking contributing to the manifestation of lung cancer in men in Australia (Wong, 2017). The data will be able to give a reflective quality result, especially when tested in a group of individuals or within a larger group of population.
The study will be one of its kind as it will be able to get a unified information after considering a larger group of population. It will also be helpful in correlating other risk factors in terms of degree of harm they can cause in attributing to lung cancer manifestation. Participants in the study will be recruited with the information taken from Lung Health Australia (Lung Health Australia, 2019). The patients having multiple risk factors will be taken in to consideration for the study purpose. The details of socio-economic characteristics will be also be defined for the study group taken into consideration for the study purpose. The study will be further helpful in determining the effectiveness of the screening process for lung cancer and will also be helpful in providing an insight about developing intervention strategies for preventing the manifestation of lung cancer in men in Australia.
The main hypothesis of this study is to determine the impact of smoking and other risk factors attributing to the development of lung cancer in men. The same is to be evaluated with eth help of screening tests. Another hypothesis can be formulated as per the interaction between modifiable as well as non-modifiable risk factors that can be associated with lung cancer.
Hypothesis 1- There is significant impact of smoking and other risk factors for lung cancer as per lung cancer screening tests.
Hypothesis 2- There is no significant impact of smoking and other risk factors for lung cancer as per lung cancer screening tests.
lung cancer in Australia is the fourth leading cause of death. The number of deaths caused by lung cancer are greater in number as compared to number of deaths caused by bowel or breast cancer on an annual basis. Until a recent survey done in 2019, lung cancer still remains the fifth most commonly diagnosed cancer in Australian population (Australian Government, Cancer Australia, 2019). The number of cases of lung cancer however, are observed to be more in men as compared to women in Australia. The number of deaths has also been rising constantly with the years due to prevalence of lung cancer in individuals. The rate of mortality has also shown to be higher in advancing age (Dunn, 2017). However, with the advanced screening process available the survival rates of patients having lung cancer has been improved drastically. At the end of 2014, there were 7,286 people living who had been diagnosed with lung cancer that year, 17,603 people living who had been diagnosed with lung cancer in the previous 5 years (from 2010 to 2014) and 28,089 people living who had been diagnosed with lung cancer in the previous 33 years (from 1982 to 2014) (Yu, 2017).
Numerous risk factors have been identified over the past few years, contributing to the formation of lung cancer in individuals. Some risk factors can be modifiable in nature such as environmental risk factors, while other can not be modified such as factors including genetics as well as family history. People having lung cancer are also usually found to be having one or more factors at the same time. Still the development of cancer in any individual is to be analysed from an individual’s perspective as well. The groups on the basis of which lung cancer in the study will be examined will be broadly classified as per inclusive of age, socio-economic factors, cultural factors, personal history as so on.
The few crucial risk factors that can be associated with manifestation of lung cancer in Australian men population can be as follow: -
The study will be based on men population- based cohort study. The screening process will be conducted with the help of Lung Health Australia. The data base will be able to provide with the information regarding the statistics of number of cases as well the mortalities associated with lung cancer. The study will also be inclusive of patients that are bound for a CT-scan or PET- scan for their lung cancer. All males between the age group of 40-60 years will be included in the case study having a set diagnosis of lung cancer. The baseline parameters of various risk factors will be evaluated for the patients. Due consideration to smoking as well as other health and personal related risk factors will be examined. The diagnosed lung cancer cases for over a duration of one year will be taken into consideration for the research purpose.
Outcome of the study will be based on a one-year follow-up post diagnosis of lung cancer and patient ongoing with the treatment of the same. The data base will help in identifying the individuals who have been regularly following up for their routine scanning and screening process. The outcome will also help in identifying the effectiveness of the scanning process in determining the progression of the cancer. It will also be helpful in examining the severity of other risk factors in contributing to the formation of breast cancer in the individuals.
The study will be inclusive of patient having an active smoking status. The participant can be having one or more associated risk factor at a same given point of time. Individual information such as personal as well professional history will also be taken in to due consideration. Person’s pack years will be dully noted. The participant will also be examined for their current diagnosis and ongoing treatment intervention for managing their condition. The study will be based on self- reported information given by the participants, inclusive of their dietary habits, smoking habits, occupational information, family history and so on. Screening and prognostic history will also be taken into deep consideration for the study purpose. This will help in relating the symptoms reflected by the patient as well as their stage of cancer, as expressed by the diagnostic testing.
The study will be based out of Queensland, Australia. The study will be conducted over a duration of a year’s time. The study will take into consideration a sample size of 10,000 recruits. The response rate will be sufficient enough to reflect upon significant findings from the study. All men having a currently active smoking status will be included in the study and they should also be having a follow-up scans available with a set diagnosis of lung cancer. The groups will be segregating on the basis of one group having smoking as the main risk factor and other group based on risk factors apart from smoking.
The participants will be selected randomly from the data base. They will be provided with a questionnaire having various options to mark from. The appointment letter will be sent on the basis of deep scanning and after dully examining the candidate for full filling all of the required criteria. The participants will be able to answer the questions as per their own ease and understanding of the matter. The participants have to dully fill the answers on their own without any additional support externally, to provide them with the freedom to answer as per their own comfort.
The participants will be selected randomly from the database as per the researcher’s ease. They should however, be able to meet all of the criteria for the study purpose (Sharma, 2017). Each participant will be provided with a specific identification number to keep a close tab on the progress of the same. This will also be helpful in reducing the detailed effort required in compiling the data on a larger scale. The data will be selected randomly, as it enables a researcher to choose for the participants from a larger pool of individuals. It also loosens the constrain of streamlining the data collection and thus allows, lager sample size to be collected with much ease. The result obtained from each participant will be marked under a specific identification number to make it easy to reduce the chances of confusion while compiling the data in a conclusive manner.
The cases of lung cancer will be evaluated mainly on the basis of risk factors and the screening interventions done to examine the impact of the same on lung cancer. The self-reported answers will be able to give a detailed insight on the factors that are not easy to collect ideally. This can be inclusive of noting for personal history of the patient and their smoking details which usually the patients are reluctant to answer about. The analytic strategy will also be based on the objectives determined for the study purpose. The study will be concluded with the help of thematic analysis of the data collected from the survey method (Braun, 2019). This will help in evaluating the univariate as well as bivariate association between the various risk factor contributing to the manifestation of the lung cancer in men. Thematic analysis method will also be able to link the risk factors with the screening process and thus, helping in determining their effectiveness in diagnosing the manifestation of lung cancer in the individuals.
The main bias of the study will be considering only men for the screening purpose. Also, the age group defined for the study purpose is very stringent. The risk factors can have different impact on the development of ling cancer in terms of gravity and intensity of the diseased condition. These risk factors can not be streamlined in terms of impact on the scanning and screening process as well. The accuracy of the results will also be directly impacted by the same. There are multiple base line parameters considered for the study purpose which might overlap during the research conduction process. It can also be difficult to streamline the results as the participants might not be having similar risk factors contributing to the development of lung cancer in them (Moser, 2017). The study is also constrained to one specific geographic region. The environmental factors can override other attributing factors causing lung cancer in men. The confounding factors such as age, socio-economic status, person history and so on will also be dully considered for analysis purpose and might not be able to provide a clear picture in terms of relating these individual factors with one another.
The study will be inclusive of the following ethical considerations:
The study will be conducted over a duration of one-year span. The parts of research will be divided over the months in the following manner:
Data collection & analysis
The study will be helpful in determining the main risk factors that is the leading cause, contributing to the development of lung cancer in men. The risk factors of smoking and other factors can also be correlated with each other. It will also provide and insight on the screening process and how it can be helpful in not only diagnosing lung cancer but also helping in managing the same. The cumulative effect of the analysis of the same will be able to determine the interventions helpful in early detection and prevention of lung cancer. This will also be helpful in reducing the overall mortality associated with the diagnosis of lung cancer. It will be helpful in improving the overall quality of life of the patient by reducing the negative impact on the condition of the individual.
Australian Government, Cancer Australia, 2019. Retrieved from https://lung-cancer.canceraustralia.gov.au/statistics
Lung Health Australia, 2019. Retrieved from https://www.lunghealthaustralia.com.au/about-your-health/lung-and-sleep-health/lung-cancer-screening#:~:text=Unlike%20bowel%20cancer%20and%20breast,is%20mainly%20long%20term%20smokers.
Tobacco in Australia, 2019. Retrieved from https://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/
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