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Controversies in Epidemiology

Question 1

Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the uterus. The uterus is an empty pear-shaped pelvic organ that develops into a fetus. Endometrial cancer begins at the level of the cells that make up the lining of the uterus (endometrium). Endometrial cancer is also called uterine cancer. Other types of cancer, including sarcoma, can occur in the uterus but are less common than endometrial cancer. Endometrial cancer is often the cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding and is often found in the early stages. Surgical identification in the uterus is often detectable but cures endometrial cancer.


  • Signs and symptoms of endometrial cancer include:

  • Vaginal bleeding in postmenopausal men

  • Bleeding during

  • Pelvic pain

New methods for detecting the presence of uterine cancer are based on established vaginal smear techniques. Vaginal smears are widely used in laboratory animals and for the study of the reproductive cycle. Cells from different ovoid surfaces of the uterine canal transform the uterus and vagina into morphological and staining features, allowing many general or abnormal hormonal physiology assessments responsible for different cellular patterns. It is only necessary to collect exfoliated cells from progressive vaginal forensics. Spread these on a clean glass slide, dissolve with alcohol and ether, stain solution and you are ready to study under the microscope. During routine investigations into human vaginal smears, Papanicolaou found that not only were they invisible in the vaginal mucosa due to the damaged cells, but many pathological cells, including cancer, could also be found (Morice, et al. 2016).

Author research

Demonstrated by clinical procedures and biopsy techniques, Papanicolaou and Truet collaborated in three years of research at Cornell Medical College to determine the link between vaginal skin cancer cells and malignant infections of the uterus. Thousands of vaginal smears have been created and studied and the method has proven to be a decisive advantage in that it allows the detection of cancer without the need for juvenile surgical intervention. It was easy to prepare for vaginal smears, can be performed quickly and can be repeated as many times as needed. This is especially valuable when diagnosing carcinomas early in the uterus and fundus.

The technique, subsequently, will be portrayed in some detail with the expectation that others may get keen on figuring out how the dangerous cells can be perceived. A satisfactory depiction can't be endeavored, be that as it may, for lack of space. The intrigued peruser is, in this way, alluded to a progressively complete work which is to be accessible shortly. The dangerous epithelial cells peel from the outside of neoplastic developments, much as do typical cells. They at that point skim descending into the vaginal fornix, where they gather and become blended in with typical cells of epithelial and blood cause, just as with bodily fluid, microorganisms, parasites and cell garbage. The pace of peeling of the threatening cells is by all accounts subordinate upon the pace of development of the neoplasm and its size.

Youthful, little, and moderate developing lesions, in this way, generally shed just scarcely any cells, while a huge and quickly developing lesion will customarily contribute generally rich showers of trademark cell components. Careful investigation of the recolored smear arrangements is a significant fundamental too, as that such looking might be finished by an individual prepared in the subtleties of this kind of cell conclusion. An atlas 3 with shaded outlines has been arranged and will without further ado be accessible to help those keen on learning the strategy. The subtleties of the recoloring method will likewise be given in all the subtleties important to copy the shading responses as appeared (Papanicolaou and Traut, 1943).

Question 2


That is, the difference between malignant cells from benign sources is based on size, shape, staining reaction, and changes in the properties of chromatin components in the nucleus, nucleoli, and cytoplasm. Shapes with lobular, claret or longer nuclei are the most recommended. Furthermore, if chromatin is broken down in one or more nuclei at one or the other pole of the nucleus and if a large number of cells are found close to each other, an accurate comparison is made to establish the value. However, a hypothetical diagnosis of malignancy can be made. No one thinks of using this method as a basis for a complete diagnosis, so the word "argument" is used as a suggestion.

Different types of carcinoma show different types of changes in the source of squamous epithelium or glands. For example, a microscopist needs to be familiar with many cell morphologies. Different changes are not only difficult to explain, they are not really possible. So, if one needs to evaluate it efficiently or make it more reliable, one either needs to take a photo solution or look for the smear. Vaginal smears should be diagnosed using biopsy. Because of its simplicity and ease of application, the answer is that vaginal warts can be applied to many women, and biopsies can only be used for minor surgeries when all the benefits are available.

Also, the vagina can be warped to reveal the presence of cancer if it cannot be displayed otherwise. Also, vaginal smears can be made without damaging the parts, thus avoiding the risk of dilation through open lymphatic vessels. For these and other reasons, not only does it have its own value, but it can also provide other diagnostic methods available. This is especially true because it manifests in the early stages of cancer, which is a wound that can be said to be easy to heal and specific.

In its incipiency the colossal extent of the vaginal smear method was maybe never imagined and accordingly a misnomer was fastened to the technique. When Papanicolaou presented the procedure, the dramatization rested not in the way that sloughed off vaginal cells were being spread upon a slide and recolored specifically, yet rather that singular cells would mirror the physiological and obsessive procedures of a whole organ framework. On the off chance that this reality had been featured by use of such terms as "cytodiagnosis," utilized by Ayre' or "recoloring for physiological cell files," therefore authored, the current situation with disarray concerning the strategy would not exist.

Practically each gathering of laborers has its own alteration of the method depicted by Papanicolaou and Traut" in their book "Analysis of Uterine Cancer by the Vaginal Smear." In many cases the "vaginal" territory is presently "cervical." Loose cells are not gotten, yet scrapings or even conizations of the cervix are made. Two variables stay consistent, the example is recolored and the individual cells are concentrated as a record of physiological and obsessive conditions inside the female genital framework. The fluctuation of ends is confirmation enough that these investigations are not measurably legitimate, albeit done in compliance with common decency.

They can't be so on the grounds that outcomes acquired from dead peeled cells of the back fornix are not similar to results perused from living cervical tissue. Likewise, the estimation of the particular method is typically viewed as just according to its exactness as an apparatus for the finding of threat, while the value of the procedure to the measurably bigger gathering of non-carcinogenic ladies is overlooked. Incidentally auxiliary findings are made upon the standard smear material however all in all the pathologists are too troubled to even think about covering satisfactorily the slides for beginning analysis (Dedes, et al. 2011).

Roughly thirty-four years have gone since the vaginal smear strategy was at first portrayed. Just inside the most recent ten years, be that as it may, has the method risen up out of the exploration research facility and become a regularly acknowledged clinical apparatus. Such a blast of prevalence caused the standard disarray. Another dialect has created with all the idiocrasy and language of a patois. Terms have been acquired from the specific vocabularies of the endocrinologist, the anatomist, the gynecologist, and the pathologist to the degree that Ayre has incorporated a glossary of cytologic terms inside his book "Malignant growth Cytology of the Uterus". (Ayre, 1947).

Medication in the twentieth century is turning out to be more a study of cause and avoidance than impact and fix. The cutting edge doctor isn't fulfilled to apportion palliative measures to his patients; he looks to keep up the individuals in steady great wellbeing and prosperity by finding the illness nearly before it starts. In this way, a battery of diagnostic guides has created for the early discovery of glitch of the body tissues and organs. Conspicuous among these methods is the "vaginal smear." Since its introduction in 1917 by stockyard and Papanicolaou as a research centre strategy material to rodents, the vaginal smear has been explained into a procedure of huge opportunities for the investigation of both ordinary and obsessive states.

In light of the fact that the vaginal smear speaks to the equivalent effectively available wellspring of data to the cytologist that the blood smear does to the haematologist or the fundoscopic examination to the ophthalmologist, it was perceived as ahead of schedule as 1928 by Papanicolaou as a guide to the analysis of malignancy. Biopsy has been the doctor's revered and solid strategy for deciding the idea of a uterine lesion or utilitarian issue of the gynaecological framework. In any case, the nearness of a lesion or indication or something to that affect is required a pi-io;- i for the presentation of a biopsy, which is a surgery of significant inconvenience and cost to the patient. The very presence of the lesion infers that on the off chance that it is destructive the neoplasm is as of now progressed (Papanicolaou and Marshall, 1945).

During thousands of clinical trials, Papanicolaou and trout found about 126 cervical and cervical tumors in the uterus and 193 cancer doctors involved in cervical adenocarcinoma. Biopsy revealed the presence of uterine cancer in all cases in 1.3% of cases. The smear failed to diagnose because in one case there was partial healing treatment and in another case the extra vaginal bleeding resulted in all the cells being washed from the vagina. However, adenocarcinoma was first revealed by vaginal skin when other clinical procedures did not have adequate diagnostic equipment. Some of these were very early wounds (Cicinelli, et al. 2010).

Thus, it is clear that vaginal smear is the best single method available. Findus is much more advanced than biopsy because it is associated with early stages of the uterus and asymptomatic cancer. However, there are some false exceptions to this method and it can take a long time to be reasonably reliable in determining significant myopia, so it is not possible to diagnose vaginal smears and the final disease. It is recommended to use it as an "indicator method" of the final step. It is believed that applying this method can significantly increase the number of early detections of uterine cancer and dramatically improve the "cure rate" of uterine cancer. Also, many suspicious old lesions of the uterine canal and fundus were found. It is not as effective in treating primary lesions as it is in this group, but as the results improve it becomes more sensitive to the therapeutic approach (Cicinelli, et al. 2010).

Question 3

Similarly as mass x-beams have supported in the early identification of tuberculosis, populace screening is being endeavored for the early recognition of uterine malignancy by methods for the vaginal smear procedure. Because of the straightforwardness of the method as it concerns the patient, huge quantities of individuals can be considered and will permit the strategy to be completed. The vaginal smear doesn't dislodge the biopsy strategy, but instead, it necessitates that corroborative biopsies be done in more noteworthy numbers on asymptomatic patients who uncover cells from an early carcinoma inside the genital smear. It is for the most part yielded that smear discoveries must be affirmed by biopsy past to treatment.

Despite the difficulty of generalizing the "vaginal smear" method, its advantages as diagnostic assistance are believed to outweigh its obligations. The demographic-screening aspect of this technique makes a significant number of women feel safe for cervical cancer, giving the technique a real guarantee for widespread use. Differential diagnosis of endometriosis is rather difficult due to the varying degrees of intestinal involvement, and thus stable higher estrogen levels help to diagnose both vaginal smears and treatments. Pregnant nucleus cells from the hypertrophic middle zone have long been recognized, but gestational nucleus cells simultaneously spread the threat of miscarriage, including keratinization and fibrillation of blood or red blood cells (Ayre, 1946).

Vaginal smear is believed to help both prevent miscarriage early and prevent unnecessary hormone therapy after the risk is high or too late. The ability to evaluate the development and activity of the ovaries through the vaginal skin is a great advantage of sterile work. Low levels of keratinization, which show little or no estrogen activity over time, indicate the age of the baby's ovaries regardless of age.

In natural or surgical treatment, ovulation of mammals is usually defined as stopping egg production. Therefore, genadotropins (FSH only) are higher in premenopausal women. Vaginal smokers are expected to show only rejected mucosal basal cells. However, in 1933 Papanicolaou explained evidence of rhythmic hormonal changes in vaginal sweating in postmenopausal women. It has been shown that some estrogenic activity persists indefinitely after menopause, indicating that "crowded menopause" smears are better known as "atrophic" smears.

As proof of conception, in 1941 Novak and Richardson discovered 32 endometrial hyperplasias that appeared to have been exposed to estrogenic activity in 31% of the new 137 postmenopausal women. A potential source of estrogen is deposited in the adrenal glands in each study. The permeability of gonadotropins (LH) to luteinizing factors, including uninterrupted estrogen stimulation, appears to be insufficient, so progesterone is required in menopausal women instead of the commonly accepted estrogen therapy. Vaginal smear can be used to address this problem and is associated with hormonal status in excess menopausal women (Geller, et al. 2011).

General use

Unlike biopsy procedures and electrocardiography, vaginal smear techniques do not increase the income of any private practitioner. The cost of maintenance required for paid psychiatric laboratories is higher than the salaries of highly trained, full-time staff that have completed treatment where physicians send reminders. Respecting people who have been taught exfoliation cytology, the accuracy of the interpretation comes only from experience, where memory is mixed with experience and thousands of routine memories are studied and cytological investigations are carried out. It is identified as a pathological disorder. There is very little to do with all this. Examples are certainly available to general practitioners.

The general practitioner, however, can obtain the specimen; drop the slide into a jar of 1/2 absolute alcohol and 1/2 ether. Then remove; cover with glycerin and another slide; and place the slides into a container for shipment to the laboratory nearest him which specializes in reading cellular pathology. It is observed that the major groups in which genital smear test reports are regularly published in the literature. Any female patient having abnormal uterine bleeding, a suspicious genital lesion, menopausal symptoms, menstrual disorders, amenorrhea, or the like, is due the protection of having so simple a procedure performed by her doctor (Ayre, 1951).


Ayre, J.E., 1946. Vaginal and cervical cytology in uterine cancer diagnosis. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 1(5), p.735.

Ayre, J.E., 1947. Selective cytology smear for diagnosis of cancer. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 53(4), pp.609-617.

Ayre, J.E., 1951, June. Cyto-diagnosis in uterine cancer. In Ciba clinical symposia (Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 107-134).

Cicinelli, E., Tinelli, R., Colafiglio, G., Fortunato, F., Fusco, A., Mastrolia, S., Fucci, A.R. and Lepera, A., 2010. Risk of long-term pelvic recurrences after fluid minihysteroscopy in women with endometrial carcinoma: a controlled randomized study. Menopause, 17(3), pp.511-515.

Dedes, K.J., Wetterskog, D., Ashworth, A., Kaye, S.B. and Reis-Filho, J.S., 2011. Emerging therapeutic targets in endometrial cancer. Nature reviews Clinical oncology, 8(5), p.261.

Geller, M.A., Ivy, J.J., Ghebre, R., Downs Jr, L.S., Judson, P.L., Carson, L.F., Jonson, A.L., Dusenbery, K., Vogel, R.I., Boente, M.P. and Argenta, P.A., 2011. A phase II trial of carboplatin and docetaxel followed by radiotherapy given in a “Sandwich” method for stage III, IV, and recurrent endometrial cancer. Gynecologic oncology, 121(1), pp.112-117.

Morice, P., Leary, A., Creutzberg, C., Abu-Rustum, N. and Darai, E., 2016. Endometrial cancer. The Lancet, 387(10023), pp.1094-1108.

Novak, E. and Richardson Jr, E.H., 1941. Proliferative changes in the senile endometrium. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 42(4), pp.564-577.

Papanicolaou, G.N. and Marshall, V.F., 1945. Urine sediment smears as a diagnostic procedure in cancers of the urinary tract. Science, 101(2629), pp.519-520.

Papanicolaou, G.N. and Traut, H.F., 1943. Diagnosis of uterine cancer by the vaginal smear. New York, 46.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Epidemiology Assignment Help

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