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Mining activities are generally complex in nature and consists of various different investment work including construction, exploration, buildings, plant and equipments. A quality artefact released on March 2012 issue of Private New Capital Expenditure and Expected Expenditure, Australia (Category No. 5625.0) gave a synopsis of the conceptual base of the pertinent ABS notification which estimated the investment in Australia employing a speculative mining scheme to describe how the investment was considered in ABS record (ABS, 2020). Workplace hazard in construction work are bound to happen, causing a great challenge for risk management team. There are various challenges for workers and organisation in the way they tolerate and perceive health risk. To some extent it is due to the latency and invisibility of the related health effects (Jones et al., 2019). Thus for a civil engineer, a dynamic safety risk model are required before the commencement of any construction work which consider variation in cost, quality, time and interaction among various stakeholders (Alkaissy et al., 2020).
After the March release of 2014, scheduled for 2 May 2014 (updated 16 May 2014), the ABS will end production of this publication and all connected spreadsheets. Corrections had been made in the production of pre-mix concrete on July 2011 housing changes in statistical coverage and geography. As a result of these changes, comparing data for the financial year 2010-2011 may not be authentic and should be contemplated with care (ABS, 2014). Since the production is limited, so as a civil engineer one should opt for recycle concrete aggregate (RCA). It would create sustainable end use for waste concrete thereby reducing demands for natural aggregate (Wijayasundara, 2016). Due to its high porosity, RCA is not widely accepted by International Standard but study shows that RCA can be used as a substitute for natural aggregate in production of M25 & M32 concrete (Ahmed et al., 2020).Studies also show that replacing cement and virgin material in concrete results in reduction of greenhouse gas emission. Thus maintaining a balance between stakeholders and environment (Sandanayake et al., 2020).
Ahmed, H., Tiznobaik, M., Huda, S. B., Islam, M. S., & Alam, M. S. (2020). Recycled aggregate concrete from large-scale production to sustainable field application. Construction and Building Materials, 262, 119979.
Alkaissy, M., Arashpour, M., Ashuri, B., Bai, Y., & Hosseini, R. (2020). Safety management in construction: 20 years of risk modeling. Safety Science, 129, 104805.
Jones, W., Gibb, A., Haslam, R., & Dainty, A. (2019). Work-related ill-health in construction: the importance of scope, ownership and understanding. Safety Science, 120, 538-550.
Sandanayake, M., Gunasekara, C., Law, D., Zhang, G., Setunge, S., & Wanijuru, D. (2020). Sustainable criterion selection framework for green building materials–An optimisation based study of fly-ash Geopolymer concrete. Sustainable Materials and Technologies, e00178.
Wijayasundara, M., Mendis, P., Zhang, L., & Sofi, M. (2016). Financial assessment of manufacturing recycled aggregate concrete in ready-mix concrete plants. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 109, 187-201.
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