It is a process in which client relationship is created so that he/she can observe, understand and take action on the process events that occur in the external and internal environment. This is done so that the situation can be made better as per the requirements of the client. It analyses the strategies and processes that will help the client to improve its day to day operations and functioning in the organization. Further, social interaction and interpersonal skills are also improved with its help. Thus, timely interventions are also done by the process consultant so that the activities that have the scope of improvement can be improved. There are many assumptions of this process that must be taken care of while handling the client and change implementation (Jimmieson & Tucker, 2018). The skills are strategies to solve the day to day problems and limitations must be passed on to the client also so that in future, whenever, he faces any issue, he can solve by himself only. Further, organizational capacity should be built so that it becomes more adaptive, flexible, emergent and effective when the environment changes and there is a need for adaptation. The organization should also be shown the correct path so that it can master its operational and strategic capabilities which will help in the achievement of the goals even in the situation of complex challenges. The organization should make efforts to continuously enhance its processes and systems so that it can become sustainable and viable in the long term.
Creation of an emergent living vision will make everyone feel lively and people will experience to be the part of an ongoing and evolutionary organization (Barnett & Weidenfeller, 2016). Further, there should be a join diagnosis of the problem so that the client remains aware of the intention that the information shows. Firms should try to become self-reliant so that they can understand the problem, have diagnosis and intervention plan on their own. Organizational development considers this change agent approach critical because it helps in giving the right direction to the organization. Further, it helps in problem diagnosis not only in present but also in future. Also, there are strategies to make the organization self-reliant which will be helpful throughout the lifespan of a firm (Jimmieson & Tucker, 2018). In this, the organizational change efforts will prove to be successful in achieving the objectives and also there will be the scope of adjustment in future as per the needs of the environment.
Diagnosis in the change implementation process model can be defined as the process of identifying, analysing and interpreting the data in a particular context so that possible needs can be identified. Diagnosis can be done at all the levels of change implementation so that any possible loophole can be acknowledged at the same time and further deterioration can be stopped (Carnall, 2018). Diagnosis is critical as defines the problem from its roots and also identify the causes attributed to the issue. This will help the management to take suitable action and rectify the issue at the right time. The two tools that can be used for diagnosis during a change process are interview and recording and examining critical events and incidents. Interview is the process in which one party asks the questions and the other party will give answers to those questions. It is a one to one conversation and can be both structured or unstructured (Matarazzo & Wiens, 2017).
Recording and examining critical incidents means some of the important events or activities are recorded first and then they are examined or analysed to find the issues or gaps so that solution for the same can be arrived at. These two tools are quite helpful during a change process as both will help to identify the cause of a problem. Therefore, it will be a great help for the management to reach an effective solution. Whenever any issue like conflict in the workforce or teamwork problem arises; interview method can be used to take insights from the team members. Thus, the real cause of the issue can be found. Further, recording and examining tool can be used every time the firm faces any problem. All the critical events and processes will be recorded and then in the problem situation, important and relevant recordings will be examined with the objective to find the cause. All the identified causes can be considered during the change process and implementation will be done by keeping in mind that such issues do not arise again (Barth & de Beer, 2018). The identified diagnostic tools can be applied when we need to find the cause of the issue or to introduce a new process and also during change implementation. It is just to make sure that the same issues do not repeat and the change implementation brings the desired results.
Key aspects of Dunphy and Stace’s (1993) Contingency Model of Change Leadership:
This is a comprehensive model used for the change management strategies of an organization. It gives a place for both transformation and incrementalism and incorporates the use of direct or coercive and collaborative means to attain the required changes in the organization. Firms should use different types of change strategies as per the environment of the firm and also the requirement of the time to arrive at an optimum fit. In order to reposition the organization, there is a need for transformational change at the corporate level in which a directive management style is useful. However, in the further steps when this basis is in place, both directive and consultative strategies are needed to be undertaken to keep the momentum of change (Dunphy & Stace, 1993). In order to make the change program successful, there must be the practise of consultation at the business unit level to gain commitment for change implementation. Change can be bifurcated into four different kinds and these are fine-tuning, incremental adjustment, corporate transformation and modular transformation.
The model identifies four types of leadership which are as follows:
Two types of team development activities:
Team building is an intervention for team development as stated by Shuffler et al. It is a group process designed to enhance interpersonal relations among the team members and to create social interaction with one another (Collins, 2018). It is helpful for the accommodation of the tasks, meeting goals and achievement of the results. There are four approaches of team building which include setting of the goal, management of the interpersonal relationship, clarification of the role and problem-solving. The aim and emphases of the intervention are to develop goal and purpose for both individual and team level. Role and specialisation become clear, communication is more open, conflict reduces and harmony increases among the team members. Further, trust also increases among the team members and their ability to solve task-related problems also enhances. Thus, it makes the team capable to solve complex issues within the work environment (Shuffler, Diazgranados, & Salas, 2011). Based on the evidence presented in the paper, team building is helpful when the team experiences negative affective issues and team coherence problem. Process issues such as clarification of the roles can also be resolved up to a great extent. Along with that, areas like team motivation, decision making, setting the goals and individual motivation can also be improved with the help of team-building intervention.
It is a theoretical or instruction based process of team development. This kind of intervention is designed based on scientific and practical way to create and deliver instructions to the team in such a manner that they understand and enact the competencies. It is helpful for both during and before the team performance. It majorly focuses on acquiring new skills, attitudes and knowledge for effective team performance. The emphases and aim of the intervention is to make the team learn the required skills and also to remain aware of their deficiencies so that they can be worked upon on the right time. Further, they can also practise on the basis of these skills, attitudes and knowledge (KSAs) in a simulated environment similar to the actual work environment so as to gain perfection in the work. Also, feedback is provided to the team regarding the implementation and use of these KSAs (Shuffler, Diazgranados, & Salas, 2011). Team training has proved to be effective for process and cognitive consequences. It ensures that team members have an understanding for their purposes, goals and results which is imperative for team performance. Further, the performance of the team enhances even in critical situations.
Nicholas (1979) has defined evaluation as the process of determining the successfulness of any program in terms of achievement of the goals, the relative significance of important variables for the achievement of observed results and also the role of program variables and external variables in the achievement of the results. It is also imperative to measure the efficiency with which results are being achieved. The framework for planning of the evaluation shows in the first step, there is the involvement of organizational decision-makers and these can be the managers, administrators, change agents and participants. They define the problem and select the appropriate intervention plan for the same. At the same time, the objectives of the organizational change process are defined. Further, evaluation criteria are defined and measures to ensure that the objectives are met are also designed at this stage. Based on criteria and measures, rival hypothesis is prepared. Impact model is prepared by considering the program objectives and intervention plan (Nicholas, 1979). The evaluation design step is completed when both impact model and analytical process are considered.
The questions that are asked while planning an evaluation are discussed further. The first question is; are the problems, envisioned interventions, expected results and the intended impacts defined efficiently so that they can be measured? The second question is; To test the assumptions that link expenditure, implementation, immediate and ultimate outcomes, is the program logic clearly laid? That is, if there is any theoretical model about behavior that involves program variables which can be manipulated? The last question asks that; are there persons in charge who will work on the findings of the evaluation? Means, the person will evaluate the results regarding the involved intervention. The information that they need, criteria for evaluation and intervention design are the questions that can be asked (Nicholas, 1979). The reasons that show that evaluation planning should be the first step of the change process put forward that evaluation planning assures the mangers and administrators for clear and unambiguous results. Efforts can be saved by ensuring that the intervention and its results will be helpful for the resolution of the intended problem.
Bachrach, D. G., & Mullins, R. (2019). A dual-process contingency model of leadership, transactive memory systems and team performance. Journal of Business Research, 96, 297-308.
Barnett, R. C., & Weidenfeller, N. (2016). The dynamics of planned organizational change. Consultation for Organizational Change Revisited, 3.
Barth, A. L., & de Beer, W. (2018). Performance Management Process: Diagnosis. In Performance Management Success (pp. 107-113). Springer, Cham.
Carnall, C. (2018). Managing change. London: Routledge.
Collins, K. (2018). 12 Strategy, Leadership and Team Building. Transformational Leadership and Not for Profits and Social Enterprises.
Dunphy, D., & Stace, D. (1993). The strategic management of corporate change. Human Relations, 46(8), 905-920.
Jimmieson, N. L., & Tucker, M. K. (2018). Change consultation during organizational restructuring. Organizational Change: Psychological effects and strategies for coping.
Matarazzo, J. D., & Wiens, A. N. (2017). The interview: Research on its anatomy and structure. Transaction Publishers.
Nicholas, J. M. (1979). Evaluation research in organizational change interventions: Considerations and some suggestions. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 15(1), 23-40.
Shuffler, M. L., Diazgranados, D., & Salas, E. (2011). There’s a Science for That: Team Development Interventions in Organizations. Department of Psychology and Institute for Simulation and Training, University of Central Florida. 20(6) 365–372.
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