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Chronic Musculoskeletal Disorders

Introduction to Forecasting Health Service Need

One of the locomotor issues that increase individual complication due to muscles, bones, joints and tendons arises due to the musculoskeletal conditions that include 150 disorders. The prognosis of the chronic musculoskeletal disorder differs from short-lived disorders that arise suddenly like a fracture to lifetime disorder that leads to a permanent disability of the individual (World Health Organization, 2019). Chronic musculoskeletal disorders are directly associated with multiple medical care sessions and pain reduction care to improve the health status of the patient by addressing the issue (Ushida, 2015). The health forecasting is important to identify the future health care event by using a systemic approach to understand the demand in the health care service. The health forecasting needs reliable data, information related to the health condition to forecast about the future perspective of the disorder (Soyiri & Reidpath, 2012). The report is going to provide the health forecasting concerning the chronic musculoskeletal disorder by discussing it normative need in the first part. The second section of the report will discuss the changes in the services that are required to change the normative trend observed in the first section.

Normative Trend in Chronic Musculoskeletal Disorder

There has been an increased in the non-communicable disorders that directly increase complication for the normal population and increased the health care burden to find preventive or therapeutic strategies (Bezerra et al., 2018).. One of the non-communicable disorders that decrease the quality of life of the patient is chronic musculoskeletal disorder. The chronic musculoskeletal disorder leads to the manifestation of the pain, physical disability and functional limitation. The chronic musculoskeletal disorder leads to the sedentary lifestyle due to increase disability and decreases social life (Bezerra et al., 2018). According to the World Health Organization (2019), the prevalence of the musculoskeletal condition account 16 % and it is the highest contributing global disability disorder in 2017 Global Burden Disease. Across the globe around 20-30% of the people living with musculoskeletal disorders that are increasing complications. The social and economic burden due to increase cost of the health care system services is required to manage and improve the patient condition. The orthopedic specialist and different treatment like surgery are considered to be the most expensive treatment in the hospital setting like knee replacement.

Different risk factors are directly associated with the musculoskeletal disorder and it is increasing complication for the patients. Some of the risk factors include age, gender, house setting, psychological factors, repetitive motion and posture (Nakua et al. 2015). The issue with the musculoskeletal disorder is that it not only increases the mortality but lead to lifelong disability that cannot be estimated to understand the intensity of the disorder. When the joints are involves in the musculoskeletal-disorders it lead to gout, ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid or osteoarthritis. Osteoporosis, fractures, traumatic bone injury and osteopenia are a bone-related musculoskeletal disorder that decreases the movement of the bod parts. When muscles are involved in the musculoskeletal disorders it leads to sarcopenia which leads to increase patient complication like reduced physical activity (Nakua et al. 2015).

The health system for the musculoskeletal disorder is directly associated with the high-cost utilization of the health care services that decrease the ability of a normal population to avail health status associated care. The poor understanding concerning the symptoms and variability in the treatment process leads to an increase in the care period, decrease clinical outcome and economic burden due to persistent health care need. The health care system needs to reframe by incorporation of the patient-centric approach in the care (Lentz et al., 2019). The health organization are providing adequate awareness and services to help the patient at the initial or end-stage of the musculoskeletal disorder which lead to increase participation of the pharmaceutical companies to develop a medication that is important to reduce the suffering. The musculoskeletal patient needs comparatively more medical services from the other patient with other disorder are due to the increasing pain and disability that restricts the individual ability to sustain. There is need to improve the perspective of the health care organization to provide the services is a holistic way that can be able to address the different need of the musculoskeletal disorder patient to improve the quality of life (Briggs et al., 2016).

Different health services are important to assist the patient suffering from the musculoskeletal disorder and health care professional are expected to use appropriate services as per the patient current health status (Serra et al., 2019). Rehabilitation is one of the important health services that are required by the musculoskeletal patient due to limited activity and restricted movement. The public health services are also important to empower the patient to adopt a healthy lifestyle that will help to improve the bone and joint. Secondary cares services are important to support the patient and improve the quality of life by providing proper management strategies. Community services are also adopted by the patient with the musculoskeletal disorder that includes proper therapies and treatment followed by health education and promotional service to prevent the disorders (Serra et al., 2019).

The individual with musculoskeletal disorder plays an important role starting from the risk factor until disorder management. The individual factors are directly associated with the prevalence of the disorder like age, education, working posture and body weight. Individual factor also influences the adopting to the right services that include financial status, accessibility to health care services and knowledge about the rheumatoid expert. The disorder management process also influences the individual that includes perceptive toward management approach and understanding toward different strategies. The treatment process and lifestyle management directly influence by the individual factor of the patient and thus patients have a different approach for the availing the health care services concerning the individual constraints (Ziaei et al., 2018).

Future Changes in Different Services

The future aspect that will be implemented in a different section of the health care services that can positively or negatively impact over the health care service for the musculoskeletal disorder patient can be divided into three level macro, meso and micro level. The macro-level in the health care sector includes multiple aspects and one of them is the health care policies as they play an important role in the delivery of the right care to the musculoskeletal patient. The right policies can help the patient in early detection of the disorder and it also improves the treatment process for the patient encountered with the disorders. The study presented by Lewis et al. (2019) discussed that the right framing of the health care policies can help to improve the care perspective of the patient with the musculoskeletal disorder. The health care policy related to the musculoskeletal disorder will improve the equality and equity concerning the other disorder that is important to have the right care concerning the health status of the patient.

Another aspect is the betterment of the infrastructure of the health care system to improve the right treatment of the musculoskeletal patient as today’s health care system is more oriented toward the disorder that is associated with the mortality rather than morbidity. Thus, there is a need to improve the infrastructure that can be able to address all the health care need of the musculoskeletal patient. The study presented by Koyuncu & Karcioglu (2018) discussed that adequate infrastructure of the health care is important for the proper allocation of the resources which are important to address the health care need of the musculoskeletal patient. The right infrastructure will support the disability of the patient and help them to empower them to improve the management of the disorder associated complication. The socioeconomic factor can negatively impact the health care access of the patient with a musculoskeletal disorder. The increase in economic factor related health care services and less awareness of the population can increase the prevalence of the musculoskeletal disorder that will increase the disability in the population. The study presented by Putrik et al. (2018) added that the socioeconomic factor directly affects the prevalence of the disorder but it also affects the intensity of the deteriorated quality of life. There are the different socioeconomic factors that individually or in combination affect the health care need of the patient and these factors negatively impact the accessibility of the services required by the patient.

The meso level consists of the different aspect and workforce knowledge holds the major section in the care that positively impacts the patient health care need. The right health care workforce knowledge is important to provide quality care by considering patient health perceptive. The different patient individual aspect needs to be understood and considered in the care to accurately assist the patient by addressing all the health care issue. According to Lin et al. (2020), the health care workforce is the first lines of the contact of the patient thus their knowledge and understanding directly impact the patient care and satisfaction. The health care workforces need to be aware of the different clinical practice that is to be conducted of relieving pain or improving patient health status until the doctor visit the patient.

The workforce competency with the musculoskeletal patient and the treatment they required is also important to deliver the right care by utilizing clinical and therapeutic communication skills. The article presented by Browne & Merrill (2015) added that the nurse requires a high level of care competency to address the health care need of the patient encountered musculoskeletal disorder. The competent care helps to improve the patient participation that are important to deliver the patient-centric care which leads to a better patient health outcome. The competency helps to improve the identifying and addressing the specific patient issue that will directly improve the health status. One of the factors that can negatively impact in the future to the musculoskeletal disorder prevalence and patient health care need is the funding that is important to reduce the economic burden over the patient suffering from a musculoskeletal disorder. Inappropriate funding leads to the less cost-effective intervention that on overall bases increase the economic burden over the patient which lead to poor accessibility. The study presented by Dziedzic et al. (2016) added that there is need to improvise the primary care model for the musculoskeletal disorder by increasing the funding that will help in cost-cutting which lead to economic friendly care for the patient. The funding will be utilized to improve the health care services that are musculoskeletal issue centric that will increase the quality of care of the patient.

The micro-level includes the patient factors and one of the aspects is patient participation in the care positively impact over the future perspective of the musculoskeletal disorder prevalence. The increasing participation of the patient in the care will help to deliver the personalized care that will able to address the patient-specific issue leading to a better health outcome. The study presented by Meerhoff et al. (2019) added that patient participation in the care is important to deliver the person-centred care that is built over the individual health status followed by patient preferences concerning the care. The care perspective directly influences the behaviour of the patient and patient preferred care decreases the chances of reluctance behaviour of the patient. The patients’ health literacy can negatively impact the future perspective of health care related to the musculoskeletal disorder. The decrease in health literacy leads to a poor understanding of the patient concerning the care and management strategies that are important to support the quality of the life of the patient. The study presented by Hill et al. (2015) added that health literacy plays an important in the patient with musculoskeletal disorder care as it helps to improve the understanding concerning management strategies. The deteriorated health literary is also lead to fewer chances of self-reporting which lead to delay in the diagnosis and poor health outcome of the patient.

The changes that are required to improve the health care aspect in the positive way those are important to improve the care perspective of the patient encountered with the musculoskeletal disorders. The negative aspect can increase the patient expense due to the poor health care and the individual factor which lead to poor addressing of the patient health issue (Alotaibi and Federico, 2017) . The positive factor will help to improve the care by addressing the health care gap and patient factors will decrease the prevalence of the disorder by improving patient health status. The positive factor will help to improve the funding and policy that will directly improve the expenditure of the resources which lead to better patient outcome with proper management of the issue associated with a musculoskeletal disorder like pain or disability (Alotaibi and Federico, 2017)

Forecast LHD Expenditure

The change in the policy that is required to address the specific health care need of the musculoskeletal disorder and it will help to improve the flow of the money in the care that is important for reducing the prevalence of the disorder. The health policy related to the musculoskeletal disorder will increase the health care cost to change the perspective of the care but improve equity for the patient (Thinkhamrop et al., 2017). The improvement in the infrastructure will also require the expenditure that is important to improve the care perspectives that are important to improve the care of the patient by reducing the disability. The infrastructure of health care need will improve the working pattern and resources allotment to improve patient care (Richardson et al., 2018). The workforce knowledge and competency need to be improved by training and educational session that will increase the health care expenditure but improve the care as they can be able to address the patient health-related issue. The article presented by Oranye & Bennett, (2017) workforce training and education will help to improve the workforce understanding concerning the patient health care need and right clinical practice. The aspect will help to improve the health care process to decrease the prevalence of the musculoskeletal disorder and improve the patient care to decrease the complication.

The report can be concluded by adding that the increased morbidity associated with the musculoskeletal disorder increases the need to improve the care to address the high prevalence and associated disability of the patient. The normative trend of the musculoskeletal disorder indicates that the health care system is more responsive toward the increasing mortality rather than morbidity thus need to be improved to address the patient issue. The future aspect of the musculoskeletal disorder has both positive and negative aspect that can affect the trend of the musculoskeletal disorder in the future aspect. The future aspect includes macro, meso and micro level that directly impact the future aspect of the musculoskeletal care which are health care and individual-based. These changes can directly influence the cost related to the care of the musculoskeletal disorder but these aspects will help to improve the care process that is important to address the patient issue. These aspects will help in decreasing the prevalence of the musculoskeletal disorder in the population and it also helps to improve the care that is important to improve the health status of the patient encountered with the musculoskeletal disorders.

References for Forecasting Health Service Need

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Bezerra, M. A. M., Hellwig, N., Pinheiro, G. R. and Souza Lopes, C. 2018. Prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal conditions and associated factors in Brazilian adults – National Health Survey. BMC Public Health, vol. 18, no. 1. h ttps://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5192-4 

Briggs, A. M., Cross, M. J., Hoy, D. G., Sànchez-Riera, L., Blyth, F. M., Woolf, A. D. and March, L. 2016. Musculoskeletal health conditions represent a global threat to healthy aging: A report for the 2015 world health organization world report on ageing and health. The Gerontologist, vol. 56, no. Suppl 2, pp. S243–S255. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnw002 

Browne, K. L. and Merrill, E. 2015. Musculoskeletal management matters: Principles of assessment and triage for the nurse practitioner. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 929–939. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2015.08.036 

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Dziedzic, K. S., French, S., Davis, A. M., Geelhoed, E. and Porcheret, M. 2016. Implementation of musculoskeletal Models of Care in primary care settings: Theory, practice, evaluation and outcomes for musculoskeletal health in high-income economies. Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 375–397. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2016.08.004 

Hill, C. L., Appleton, S. L., Black, J., Hoon, E., Rudd, R. E., Adams, R. J. and Gill, T. 2015. Role of health literacy in self-reported musculoskeletal disorders. Arthritis, vol. 2015, no. 607472. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/607472

Koyuncu, N. and Karcioglu, Ö. 2018. Musculoskeletal complaints in healthcare personnel in hospital: An interdepartmental, cross-sectional comparison. Medicine, vol. 97, no. 40. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000012597

Lentz, T. A., Harman, J. S., Marlow, N. M., Beneciuk, J. M., Fillingim, R. B. and George, S. Z. 2019. Factors associated with persistently high-cost health care utilization for musculoskeletal pain. PLOS ONE, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225125 

Lewis, R., Gómez Álvarez, C. B., Rayman, M., Lanham-New, S., Woolf, A. and Mobasheri, A. 2019. Strategies for optimising musculoskeletal health in the 21st century. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 162-164. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-019-2510-7

Lin, S. C., Lin, L. L., Liu, C. J., Fang, C. K. and Lin, M. H. 2020. Exploring the factors affecting musculoskeletal disorders risk among hospital nurses. PLOS ONE, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231319 

Meerhoff, G. A., van Dulmen, S. A., Maas, M. J. M., Bakker-Jacobs, A., Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M. W. G. and Wees, P. J. 2019. Exploring the perspective of patients with musculoskeletal health problems in primary care on the use of patient-reported outcome measures to stimulate quality improvement in physiotherapist practice; A qualitative study. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, pp. 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593985.2019.1678205 

Nakua, E. K., Otupiri, E., Dzomeku, V. M., Owusu-Dabo, E., Agyei-Baffour, P., Yawson, A. E., Folson, G. and Hewlett, S. 2015. Gender disparities of chronic musculoskeletal disorder burden in the elderly Ghanaian population: Study on global ageing and adult health (SAGE WAVE 1). BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol. 16, no. 204. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-015-0666-3

Oranye, N. O. and Bennett, J. 2017. Prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal injuries in health care workers: The implications for work disability management. Ergonomics, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 355–366. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2017.1361552 

Putrik, P., Ramiro, S., Chorus, A. M., Keszei, A. P. and Boonen, A. 2015. Socioeconomic inequities in perceived health among patients with musculoskeletal disorders compared with other chronic disorders: Results from a cross-sectional Dutch study. RMD Open, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 45–47. https://doi.org/10.1136/rmdopen-2014-000045 

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Thinkhamrop, W., Sawaengdee, K., Tangcharoensathien, V., Theerawit, T., Laohasiriwong, W., Saengsuwan, J. and Hurst, C. P. 2017. Burden of musculoskeletal disorders among registered nurses: Evidence from the Thai nurse cohort study. BMC Nursing, vol. 16, no. 68, pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-017-0263-x 

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World Health Organization. (2019). Musculoskeletal conditions. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/musculoskeletal-conditions

Ziaei, M., Choobineh, A., Abdoli-Eramaki, M. and Ghaem, H. 2018. Individual, physical, and organizational risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among municipality solid waste collectors in Shiraz, Iran. Industrial Health, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 308–319. https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2018-0011

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