Introduction to Specialty Practice: Community Health Nursing

Background of HIV AIDS Patient in Liverpool

The infection rate of AIDS has been increasing worldwide and statistics reveal that 40 million individuals are HIV-positive over the globe. The rate of prevalence of the AIDS in the developing country is about 95 % and the mortality rate is approximately 30 million that increased the need for the accurate intervention to improve quality of life (Eilami et al., 2019). According to World Health Organization (2019), AIDS is one for the most issue that directly reduces the immune system of the individual that increase prevalence for the multiple disorder which include tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis and bacterial infection. There are different modes of the transmission for the AIDS which include blood, breast milk, semen and vaginal secretion that increase the complication.

Australian Federation of AIDS Organization (2020) estimated that there are about 27,545 people are living with HIV in Australia and about 89% of the individual were diagnosed. The diagnosed individuals were living with AIDS and there is need for continuous health checks to monitor the health status of the patient. The increased awareness of HIV has improved different diagnosis but HIV patient still faces issue while telling people about the individual HIV. Australia is considered to be a concentrated HIV epidemic that includes 3 quarters of the new case detection every year (Gunaratnam et al., 2019). The National Association of People with HIV Australia (2019) state that people living with HIV are increased risk for multiple infection and non-infectious disease. The individual living with HIV faces many issues due to deteriorated health and loneliness that increase complication. The prevalence of the disease directly increased sedentary lifestyle that directly affects the cognitive function which occurs due to increased stress. There are some downstream effects of HIV directly increase the risk for the poor quality of life and poor self-rated health.

Significance of HIV AIDS Patient in Liverpool

The HIV incidence cannot be predicted accurately because sometimes it is initially asymptomatic or has general symptoms that can be diagnosed accurately. The HIV infection is directly indicated with a window period of about three months in which it is not diagnosed. The increased need for the intervention for HIV is due to lifelong infection of the HIV and associated deteriorated health. The increased deteriorated health of the patient directly increased the need for the intervention that can help to improve the quality of life (Jones et al., 2019). The HIV is directly related to the increased the risk for the clinical, behavioural, psychological and social problem that increases the need for the proper intervention to reduce complication. The accurate support can help to improve the health care services, improve quality of life and increased skills to cope up with the disorder. Different intervention can be utilized to increase the quality of life of the HIV patient by providing different strategy to improve the lifestyle (Bhatta et al., 2017).

One of the methods that can be utilized to improve the quality of life HIV patient includes the educational intervention that helps to improve understanding toward the different aspect of the disease and it also improves self-management ability of the individual. The educational intervention helps to understand the disorder and different factor that can increase the complication of the individual. The self-management is also improved by the educational method as the individual can able to cope up with the different symptoms, complication and coping technique for the disorder. These can be applied to improve the self-management skill of the individual to maintain the quality of life. The coping technique includes social support, stress-reducing ability, avoid negative thought and dealing with different symptoms (Martin et al., 2017).

Exercise is another intervention that can be applied to reduce the complication of the HIV patient and help to increase the quality of life of the HIV encoitnered individual . The increased physical activity helps to improve the body metabolism that is required to increase the health status of the patient. The exercise intervention will include a different set of exercise that can incorporate in the daily routine to improve the physical activity and maintain the health. The different exercises that can help HIV to improve health status include constant aerobic exercise, interval aerobic exercise, and progressive resistant exercise and combined aerobic exercise. The routine of the exercises should be following the patient preference to improve the participant of the patient and slowly the time interval should be increased to improve the endurance of the individual. The routine for the aerobic exercises routine is considered to be the better health status of the HIV patient as it helps to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, the strength of the body, improved body composition and better quality of life. The aerobic exercises are considered to be one of the best non-pharmacological methods that can be utilized to improve the health status and it has a beneficial effect over the health status over the health status of the patient (O’Brien et al., 2016).

The increased efficiency of both the intervention increases the need to incorporate them into the health promotion project to support the health status of the HIV patient. These interventions not only help to increase the physical wellbeing but also helps to improve the mental and behavioural wellbeing that is required to improve the quality of life.

Focus on HIV AIDS Patient in Liverpool

The program is framed to address the health care need of the older individual living with HIV in Liverpool of Sydney. The health promotion program will aim to reduce the health-related complication of the focused group. The need assessment will be utilized in the program to identify the gap that can be filled by accurate intervention to reduce health-related complication to increase the quality of life (Mahmud et al., 2019). The program will utilize the secondary qualitative data to understand the impact of the intervention over the health status of the focus group. Secondary data helped to evaluate the literature to identify the role of different intervention over the sample population that directly helped to judge the efficacy of the intervention (Ruggiano & Perry, 2019).

The health promotion plan will utilize two different aspects that will be utilized to improve the lifestyle of the focus group. The first aspect will cover the psychosocial behaviour outcomes that can be addressed by educational intervention. The next aspect will cover the physical health of the focus group that will incorporate physical activity intervention. Combination of these strategies in the intervention help to provide the holistic health promotion project that helps the HIV patient to live a better life by improving health status.

Goal of HIV AIDS Patient in Liverpool

The aims of the health promotion project is to improve the lifestyle of the individual encountered HIV to reduce chances of complication. The project helps to increase awareness of the individual regarding HIV and try to increase physical activity that will support a healthy lifestyle. The project aligned with the project proposed by the National Association of People with HIV Australia as they have proposed the HIV Health Literacy Framework Project. The project aims to helaht status of the the HIV-related patient and quality of life of by partnering with the patient. The health promotion project will try to improve the quality of life of the HIV patient by increase the understanding of the different technologies that can be utilized to increase the health status.

Objective HIV AIDS Patient in Liverpool

The basic objective of the project is to decrease the dependency of the patient by improving lifestyle that reduces the complication of the patient.

  • Improving understanding for the patient regarding the disease and coping technique.
  • Improve lifestyle to reduce health-associated complication
  • Help to increase coping strategy to deal with complication associate with deteriorated health
  • Improving the physical activity of the patient by incorporating exercise in routine.

Overview of HIV AIDS Patient in Liverpool

The health promotion project planning requires the following set aspect that helps to analyse the issue and frame the project. The framing of the project requires six steps that are needed to be followed to accurately frame the health promotion program (Fernandez et al., 2019).

The first step for framing the health promotion project is to design the logic model of the project that includes identifying a major problem followed by focus group identification and intervention setting. The health promotion program aim over the decreased health status of the HIV patient and the focus group for the project will be older individual living with complication associated with HIV. The intervention ain to improve the understanding regarding the disorder and self-copying technique followed by exercise intervention to improve physical activity of the individual.

The second step includes program outcome and objectives concerning the logic model framed in the first step. It includes understanding the expected outcome of the project over the behavioural and physical health of the individual that is followed by constructing a matrix to observe the change. The health promotion plan will help to improve the psychosocial behaviour of the individual by improving understanding reading coping technique that can be utilized to reduce complication and it also improves the physical health by incorporating exercise in the daily routine that helps to support the better health status The third step is to design program for the intervention that includes generating theme, theory and application of the program. The health promotion plan utilized two themes that include an educational intervention to improve understanding and self-copying technique and utilizing exercise intervention to improve physical activity of the individual. The theory behind the plan is to support the health status of the individual living with HIV and has increased complication. The application of the plan to improve the health status of the HIV patient by improving the knowledge and physical activity routine.

The next step is program product which is performed by the planning of the project and required material for the implementation of the program. The project will be conducted in the two-phase to organize the intervention and improve the efficiency of the project. The first phase includes educational intervention that is going to thrice a week of 2 weeks that will include information about disorder multiple complications and different coping technique to reduce complication. The second phase of the project includes a physical activity program that includes assisting the individual with a different set of exercise starting from jogging and walking followed by the next week for aerobic exercise. The program implementation is the next step that incorporates location, the individual involved and different adopters for the project. The location for the intervention will be conducted in the support service to provide accurate assistance to the patient due to all required presence of services. The individuals that are required to conduct the intervention which includes a health care-associates, therapist, personal trainee and project assistant to record readings. The different adapters related to the project include government policy, stakeholders and funding for the project.

The last step is the evaluation plan to identify the issue in the project that can be addressed to improve the project. The evaluation of the program will be performed by utilizing the framework proposed by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. The model includes describing the program, evaluate design, gather credible evidence, justify the conclusion, share results with stakeholders and implement change (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015).

Resources/Money

The first resource that is required for the project is the stakeholder as they plan a significant role in the planning and implementation of the program. The health promotion project stakeholders are of three types that include individual involved in program operations, individual involved and individual involved in the evaluation. The stakeholder has an important role for accurate project planning and implementation (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). Different stakeholder includes state and local health department, NGO’s, health care associates and funding partners. Educational material is also one of the resources that will be required to accurately implement the intervention for improving understanding of the patient. The organizing team will also be required to manage both the phases of intervention and assist in the collection that can be utilized to predict the efficiency of the project.

Evaluation of HIV AIDS Patient in Liverpool

The evaluation process of the project is one of the important aspects in health promotion plan. The evaluation process for the project starts with the Engage Stakeholders and it helps to understand the stakeholder point of view regarding the project. The evaluation of the stakeholder perspective includes three categories that include rendering judgment, facilitating improvement and knowledge generation. The second aspect understands the program concerning the data generated from the stakeholder analysis. The next step is to evaluate the reading and identifying the required change to improve the project. Then gather the relevant evidence that can be utilized to improve the framework of the project. The last-second step is to replan for the updated project and find a conclusion followed by sharing the lesson required to improve the project (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). The evaluation process not only evaluate the different aspect of the project but it also evaluates the performance of the individual and the effect of the intervention over the focus group. The evaluation process also includes reviewing the project efficiency by the perspective of the participant thus follow up are conducted to evaluate the patient perspective.

References for HIV AIDS Patient in Liverpool

Australian Federation of AIDS Organization. (2020). About HIV. Retrieved from: https://www.afao.org.au/about-hiv/

Bhatta, D. N., Liabsuetrakul, T. & McNeil, E. B. (2017). Social and behavioural interventions for improving the quality of life of HIV infected people receiving antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Health Qual Life Outcomes 15(80), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-017-0662-4

Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Engage Stakeholders. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/eval/guide/step1/index.htm

Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Evaluation. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/workplacehealthpromotion/model/evaluation/index.html

Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Program Performance and Evaluation Office (PPEO). Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/eval/

Eilami, O., Nazari, A., Dousti, M., Sayehmiri, F., & Ghasemi, M. (2019). Investigation of HIV/AIDS prevalence and associated risk factors among female sex workers from 2010 to 2017: a meta-analysis study. HIV/AIDS (Auckland, N.Z.), 11, 105–117. https://doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S196085

Fernandez, M. E., Ruiter, R. A. C., Markham, C. M. & Kok, G. (2019). Intervention Mapping: Theory- and Evidence-Based Health Promotion Program Planning: Perspective and Examples. Health Promotion Planning: Intervention Mapping, 7(209), 1-8.

Gunaratnam, P., Heywood, A. E., McGregor, S., Jamil, M. S., McManus, H., Mao, L., Lobo, R., Brown, G., Hellard, M., Marukutira, T., Bretaña, N. A., Lang, C., Medland, N., Bavinton, B., Grulich, A., & Guy, R. (2019). HIV diagnoses in migrant populations in Australia-A changing epidemiology. PloS one, 14(2), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212268

Jones R. B. (2019). Current challenges and recent advances in the search for a cure for HIV. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 22(2), 1-3. https://doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25248

Mahmud, K. T., Wahid, I. S., Arif, I. & Belso-Martinez, J. (2019). Impact of training needs assessment on the performance of employees: Evidence from Bangladesh. Cogent Social Sciences, 5, 1-14. DOI: 10.1080/23311886.2019.1705627

Martin, S., Chinnock, P., Perales, J., Lee, H. Y., Lee, C. Y., Wu, Y. T., & Mavrodaris, A. (2017). Self‐management interventions for people living with HIV/AIDS. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 8, 1-2. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD008731.pub3

National Association of People with HIV Australia. (2019). HIV and Ageing in Australia. Retrieved from: https://napwha.org.au/resource/hiv-and-ageing-in-australia-the-new-frontier/

National Association of People with HIV Australia. (2019). HIV and Ageing in Australia. Retrieved from: https://napwha.org.au/resource/hiv-and-ageing-in-australia-the-new-frontier/

National Association of People with HIV Australia. (2020). HIV Health Literacy Framework Project. Retrieved from: https://napwha.org.au/health-literacy-framework/

O’Brien, K. K., Tynan, A., Nixon, S. A. (2016). Effectiveness of aerobic exercise for adults living with HIV: systematic review and meta-analysis using the Cochrane Collaboration protocol. BMC Infect Dis 16(182), 1-56. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-016-1478-2

Ruggiano, N., & Perry, T. E. (2019). Conducting secondary analysis of qualitative data: Should we, can we, and how? Qualitative social work: QSW: research and practice, 18(1), 81–97. https://doi.org/10.1177/1473325017700701

Ruggiano, N., & Perry, T. E. (2019). Conducting secondary analysis of qualitative data: Should we, can we, and how? Qualitative social work: QSW: research and practice, 18(1), 81–97. https://doi.org/10.1177/1473325017700701 World Health Organization. (2019). HIV/AIDS. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hiv-aids

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