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Health Care System Evaluation

Task: Complete the table in the word template below using comparable indicators (e.g., percentages, per capita etc.) using primarily the 2019 OECD Health at a Glance report https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/social-issues-migration-health/health-at-a-glance_19991312. Briefly discuss which system you think performs best taking all indicators and the countries' demographic, economic and social context into account.

Length: Table + 250 words (approx.)

Complete the table in the word template below using comparable indicators (e.g., percentages, per capita etc.) using primarily the 2019 OECD Health at a Glance report. Briefly discuss which system you think performs best taking all indicators and the countries' demographic, economic and social context into account.

Indicators

OECD Average

Australia

Mexico

Japan

Infant mortality(Death per 1000 live births)

4.08

3.1

12.9

1.9

Life expectancy(Years)

At birth

80.7

82.6

75.4

84.2

Males

78.07

80.7

72.2

81.10

Females

83.37

84.9

75.0

87.30

Smoking/tobacco consumption(%)

Adults(15+)

18

12.4

7.6

17.7

Children

-

-

-

-

Alcohol consumption

(Litres per Capita)

Adults(15+)

8.9

9.4

4.4

7.2

Children

-

-

-

-

Overweight and Obesity

(% of Total population)

Adults

55.6

65.2

72.5

25.9

Children

31.4

36

37.7

17.5

Population coverage

98.4

100

89.3

100

Out-of-pocket medical expenditure(% of GDP)

-

1.7

2.3

1.4

Health expenditure (% of GDP)

8.8

9.3

5.5

11.1

Antibiotics prescribed(DDDs per 1000 population per day)

17.8

23.5

-

-

Hip replacement waiting times(median waiting time)

95

119

-

-

Nurses (practising nurse per 1000 population)

8.8

11.7

2.9

11.3

Doctors(practising Physicians per 1000 population)

3.5

3.7

2.4

2.4

Hospital beds(per 1000 population)

4.7

3.8

1.4

13.1

According to the World health organization,a health system consists of all organizations, people, and actions whose primary intent is to promote, restore, or maintain health. Here a discussion of the health system in Australia, Mexico, and Japan is made by taking into account the health indicators of each country.

The effective health system can be evaluated by measuring different health indicators like infant mortality,Life expectancy at birth and availability of health care system, etc. The infant mortality rate is less in Japan at less than 2 death per 1000 live birth compared to Australia (3)and Mexico(nearly 13). The infant mortality rate in Mexico is more than the OECD country's average. The effective health system should reduce the number of newborn deaths. So countries should focus on addressing the issue which causes the death of newborns.

On average in OECD countries, the person born today can expect to live almost 81 years.Mexico is having the lowest life expectancy of 75 years compared to the other two countries. In all the countries life expectancy of the female is greater than Male. Though smoking(7.6%) and Alcohol(4.4%) consumption percentage are low in Mexico compared to other countries, the percentage of adults and children suffering from obesity and overweight population is more which may be one of the reasons for lower life expectancy in Mexico. In Mexico, the population coverage for core services is lower than the OECD average. Australia and Japan achieved universal coverage for core services. Australia and Japan both are having nearly 11 practicing nurses per 1000 population but in Mexico, it is only 3 nurses per 1000 population. There are approximately 2 doctors per 1000 population in the case of Japan and Mexico whereas in Australia it is 11.So the supply of health workers is also less in the case of Mexico. The trend is the same in the case of the availability of beds and also on percentage expenditure on health.

The overall health system will be better when the country will spend more on health, make available of sufficient health workers and resource which supports the health of people. In the above comparison, Australia and Japan are performing better than the OECD average health indicators. In Mexico, almost all indicators are less than the OECD average indicating the presence of a poor health system.

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