Why is it important for managers to have an understanding of Organizational Behaviour? Do you think knowledge of OB might be more important at some managerial levels than at others? Discuss why. How might an understanding of the attribution theory help a manager better understand, communicate and influence his/her employees?
As stated by Robbins (2012), Organizational behaviour is a field of study that has its significance with the impacts of an individual, groups, etc. on the organization for the purpose of knowledge management in such areas to improve organization's effectiveness. Thus, organizational behaviour has a big scope in the field of understanding, explaining, analysing, and influencing the behaviour of individuals in the organization. At managerial level, the knowledge and understanding of organizational behaviour becomes a key source for managing people and their behaviour within the organization for the sake of overall success of the organization. Hence, the need and importance for managers to have an understanding of organizational behaviour becomes critical as it has benefitted the managerial positions in understanding and managing the changing nature of work, flexibility in work demands, cross-cultural values management, and so on. The importance of adoption of organizational behaviour and practices, specifically at managerial level has a lot to do with certain important functioning and requirements as: In understanding the organizations and employees, and their linkage in a better way. For the improvement of employee engagement levels, industrial and labour relations. For the sake of effective utilization of human resources. For the effective management of cross-cultural workforce diversity and values. To create a space of stimulation of innovation and change among employees and hence organization to master the state-of-the-art philosophy.
Analyse and evaluate your group's (Assessment-2) development and functioning according to relevant theories and models relating to groups and teams you encountered in class or in your reading. Discuss your own roles in the group and consider leadership issues. What would you do differently, given your experience while completing assessment 2 and this analysis, to enhance the performance of the group and the satisfaction of its members?
The campus shop is a large store selling women’s clothing and accessories, primarily to university students and young career women in town. Peter Reed, the store manager, is faced with a common motivational problem: his sales people come to work but are uninterested in the work; they register sales when asked by a customer but do nothing to encourage purchases or even look after stock! The sales staffs are mostly composed of female students who are working on a casual basis to earn spending money and be able to take advantage of the 10 percent employee discount on clothing.
How can Peter motivate his sales force? Help Peter with a detailed action plan. Your plan must be based on any two theories of motivation.
Motivation of personnel in the workplace has a higher importance in the way of achievement of effective market position, improved productivity, performance, and also the overall satisfaction. In the case provided, Peter must focus on pacing up the employees by motivating them to assist the increment in the performance of individuals as well as the organization. Certain theories and models of motivation have been evident in the promotion of performance levels of employees such as Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Hertzberg dual factor model and theory, etc. Peter, for the sake of motivation of its sales force, must assess the need fulfillment of its employees by these models.
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs model can be utilized in the store among personnel to assess their satisfaction and fulfillment on following factors 1. Psychological factors- such as food, shelter, clothing, etc. needs are fulfilled. 2. Safety needs- that includes level of safety and security requirements of the individuals at the workplace. 3. Affiliation needs- Motivating the employees by enhancing the sense of affection, belongingess, and social friendliness, especially within the workplace. 4. Self-esteem needs- The need and desire of employees towards gaining of self-respect, status, recognition, and appreciation in the workplace by the superiors. 5. Self-actualization- to provide a scope or opportunity for development of optimum potential among employees by means of development. These needs fulfillment process model, if adapted by Peter in the workplace, may lead him to motivate its employees in an effective way and also for possession of long-term retentivity. Similarly, use of Hertzberg two factor model can be used to develop a sound level of motivation among personnel. The Hertzberg dual factor model of motivation involves two factors namely, motivational and hygiene factors. 1. The motivational factor argues the primary causes and ways of motivation such as provision of achievement, recognition, and responsibility in the workplace. 2. Hygiene factors that highlights the necessary conditions to state the adequacy level achieved in the workplace. For example, job security, pay, working conditions, etc. Hence, Peter must use any of the stated models to assess and understand the motivational factors among its employees in order to derive the further necessary steps.
Judy works as a tour guide for Skyline Tours. Her work is part-time, usually two days a week, and she has been working for the company for about a year. On her first day the boss told her that everyone was to help out and if an extra tour were organized on the spot, then the guide would be expected to stay on board the tour bus and host the next tour, even if it wasn’t scheduled for that day. Judy asked if a retainer was paid to keep her time available after normal roster hours. She was told that no retainer would be paid and it was expected that staff would be available. Judy felt this was unfair as the job was only part-time and accounted for twelve hours total per week, yet she couldn’t commit herself to any other work on the two evenings. However, the job was interesting and enjoyable, so she accepted the working conditions.
On this particular Saturday, Judy’s best friend Linda was getting married at 6 pm in the city and Judy decided to take her outfit in the car and go straight to the wedding. She was halfway through her tour shift, when a call came from the base telling her that she was to stay on board and take an unscheduled tour of Japanese tourists to the Blue Mountains. This meant that the bus would not be back in the city until 8 pm. Judy contacted the boss at the base to explain that this was impossible, because she was to be at Linda’s wedding at 6 pm in the city. The boss said he wasn’t interested to hear any excuses and that she was to take the tour. Judy restated the fact that she could not take the tour and would have to finish at her scheduled time of 5:30 pm. The tour bus driver warned her not to do this, as she may lose her job. He told her of other instances when people had displeased the boss and they had been dismissed. Judy felt this was unlikely, as she was a very successful guide and had actually made two promotional films for the company. She had also participated in many company promotions involving overseas tour companies and large international hotel chains and had worked many extra shifts in the evening taking out VIP guests. She was highly praised by all the tour operators and very popular with travel agents.
When she returned to base the boss was waiting at the disembarking station and as soon as she got off from the bus he started yelling at her. Judy was stunned, especially as the tour group were disembarking and shaking her hand and thanking her, while the boss was standing next to her screaming. The station was very full as the next tour groups were waiting to board the bus, so Judy felt completely humiliated. She tried to speak to the boss who just hissed at her through clenched teeth and told her to go and if she ever did this again, she would be sacked. Judy arrived at the wedding, feeling angry and sick, after bearing the brunt of so much abuse and anger in front of hundreds of people.
She decided the next day to resign, although she enjoyed the job and had no other work but her tour guiding. She felt betrayed by the company because for a year she had been a committed employee, always available and willing to help.
On Monday she went to see her boss who greeted her by saying, ‘you have been excused about all the trouble you caused on Saturday, I hope it won’t happen again.’ Judy gave him the letter of resignation and said she was leaving that day. The boss was stunned and reminded her of her responsibilities to the company. He jokingly said that he was not a bad guy! He sometimes losses his temper! Judy said that she could not work for someone who was prepared to humiliate her in public, and that she would lose self-respect if she continued working for a boss who treated his staff in such a disgraceful manner!
1. Has perception and personality played any role here? Explain. (10 marks)
Perception plays an important role in the organization by which employees interpret their sensory impression and thought in order to provide meaning to their relative environment. In addition to perception, the factor of personality also becomes vital and evident in a workplace. In the case provided, a difference between the type of personality and behaviour between Judy and her boss has been observed. There has been a visible sound difference between personality traits of both. The boss seems to possess an autocratic style of leadership whereas Judy seems to possess an ethical leadership way. Hence the difference between the perception of both has occurred in the case. Also, the concept of personality has also integrated here in the role play due to the difference in the opinions, values, views, and personality factors of both. If we take into study the Jungian model of MBTI, it can be found that the two key persons of the case seem to propound and possess different sorts of behavioural and personality patterns. In addition to this, the integrated force of personality and perception difference has created, in the scenario, the evolution of certain barriers in the situation such as self-serving bias, horn effect, halo effect, and projection attribution in following ways. Self-serving bias- The boss's personality seems to have bias for taking the success factors to internal level whereas blames others in case of failures. Horn effect- Drawing a general negative impression based on a single characteristic of Judy. Halo effect- Drawing a general negative impression about the boss on the basis of single characteristic, for example, low temperament. Projection- The attribution of one's own characteristics in others as done by the boss.
2. Do you believe that an employee oriented leadership style of the boss would have brought a different outcome in a situation like this? Why?
Leadership has been defined as the ability of a group towards the succession and accomplishment of a target or goal in the workplace (Robbins, 2012). The concept of leadership has been observed to create a higher sense in the workplace scenario. Depending upon the type of leadership and its qualities possessed by the leader or manager aids in assessing the success factors of its organizational and people. Hence, an employee-oriented style of leadership becomes a vital catalyst for the organization and its people development.
In the case provided, the boss seems to utilize an autocratic or unethical style of leadership which creates in the minds of the employees, the sense of lack of recognition and support in the workplace, eventually leading to attrition of the personnel. Henceforth, it is believed that an organization must be well- fulfilled with the employee oriented. Ethical, charismatic leaders that can provide an effective orientation to its employees and lead to succession and retentivity of talents in the workplace. As observed in the case study, the boss must have possessed the employee oriented, charismatic leadership style that aims to employee engagement, sound workforce management, integrated workforce, and also development of emotional intelligence among employees like Judy. The utilization of stated styles would have led Judy to retain.
3. Who do you think is to be blamed for this situation from the organizational behaviour point of view? Why? (5 marks)
For the sake of efficient management of resources and practices, and removal of unwanted situations in the workplace, the development of sound organizational behaviour and practices may assist. In the case provided, from the point of view of organizational behaviour, there are list of issues and mediocre that can be blamed for this situation. Some of these are as stated below. 1. The difference between the style of personality possessed by the people and the gap between management of these personality differences. 2. Lack of emotional attributes into action, such as emotional intelligence, cognition, job satisfaction, communication barriers, etc. 3. Lack of motivation and higher stress levels on the employees (Judy as per the case).
4. Absence or illiteracy in applied performance practices such as rewards, recognition, appraisal, etc. felt or assessed by the employees.
5. Lack of conflict management practices and systems, role of gender as a means of conflict. For example, gender difference between the boss and Judy may have raised the bar for bad practices in the workplace. 6. Organizational politics and lack of efficient and employee-oriented, ethical styles of leadership in the boss.
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