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The Effect of Lean Methods

Table of Contents

Introduction.

Method.

Findings and Analysis.

3.1 Issue with the organization.

3.2 Defining scope and sequence of improvement

3.3 Discussion on 5 Why’s.

3.4 Check sheet

3.5 Pareto analysis.

3.6 Analysis.

Reflection.

Conclusion.

Reference list

1. Introduction to Advanced Quality Management

Consistency is known to be the key feature that the restaurant manager needs to focus on. Ensuring maximum consistency comes under the priority of the manager. Recipe development and ingredient management are known to be one of the efficient sourcing and which is also considered to be one of the most important steps in ensuring consistency (Panuwatwanich and Nguyen2017). Consistency is also known to be building trust with the customers for creating a reputation along with enhancing the bottom line. In the current scenario, the restaurant manager is struggling to manage service quality in terms of food quality, waiting time of customers, and the attitude of employees as these are affecting the business negatively. The research objectives of the present research are as follows:

  • To maintain the service and food quality of the restaurant
  • To educate the employees to behave properly with the customers
  • To ensure the production process to get conducted properly along with managing the supply chain process

Conduction of the research will be useful in analyzing the areas of changes for developing the service of the restaurant. The view of the managers gathered in the interview process can be used in developing strategies for ensuring the business to run properly. It is also needed to educate the employees so that they can have a proper conversation with the customers (Madanat and Khasawneh 2017). In order to have a better idea, the manager is going to use both primary and secondary data sources. By the use of Primary data source, the manager will get to know about the view of other managers. The secondary data source will help to gather data from the previous researches and the models that have been followed to ensure the business to get conducted properly.

2. Method of Advanced Quality Management

In order to conduct the research process, integrating the PDSA model is considered to be effective as a successful PDSA process does not require a successful QI project or program. It is also seen that the successful application of PDSA methodology is considered to be useful for enabling users to achieve their QI goals (Aziz and Morita 2016). It is a four-step problem-solving model that gets used for improving the process along with carrying out the changes. Apart from this, the researcher is also going to use Primary and Secondary data sources to gather necessary data on the topic. 10 managers are said to get interviewed in the process. It is also said to use open-ended questions so that mangers can state what they think about the situation and can provide a better explanation to it. The researcher is also going to use data collection tools and techniques to evaluate the gathered data. The quantitative analysis helps in getting statistical value from the collected data. However, Qualitative analysis is seen to be useful for gathering in-depth insight into the research process.

In the study, the researcher has considered using both the techniques to get deeper insight. In order to eliminate discrimination and also maintain ethical integration; the researcher has followed a random sampling method to choose participants randomly (Pimentel and Major. 2016). The questions that were developed for asking the participants are mostly related to managing service for enhancing quality along facilitating prompt servicers to get provided to the customers. Customer satisfaction was said to be the primary concern for any manager and for that, the employees are said to be taken under proper observation to analyze on which areas they need improvement. Along with customers; employee satisfaction ideas also considered being an important part as it encourages the employees to do more for the organization to ensure positive brand name (Harrison-Walker 2019). Keeping the employees motivated is also necessary as it helps in developing better bond which impacts on work quality.

3. Findings and Analysis of Advanced Quality Management

3.1 Issue with the Organization

Running a restaurant successfully is said to be an extremely challenging part where the choices are seen to be beyond overwhelming. Three things that get determine the success of the restaurant is the food quality, service, and location. The Menu is needed to be developed properly so that it will be summoned of varieties (Mehta and Degi. 2019). The Menu is also needed to be evaluated on a monthly, bi-annually, or yearly basis to analyze if any changes are required or not. The organization Nathan Outlaw is a start-up and thus it is becoming quite difficult to be in the race by maintaining both price and quality.

Having issues with quality are considered to be a serious threat as customers were not happy with the service or the food. In order to develop and improve the quality of the foods; the case company has decided to go for conducting a quality management system. It will help in finding out the areas where the restaurant needs to conduct development and as a result; it will impact on ensuring a positive brand name for the organization (Pai et al. 2018). The adaptability of the PDSA Cycle is also considered to be an important part as will help in resolving the quality-related problems. Apart from quality-related issues; employees were also becoming a problem as they were to understand the demand of the customers which was also creating a negative impact. Thus, hiring the right people is necessary as a business in the wrong hands can lead to a high turnover rate and also can damage the reputation.

3.2 Defining Scope and Sequence of Improvement

The Model of Improvement is a framework where continuous improvement can be conducted. It is considered to be an essential method that gets used for structuring the project. The improvement model is seen to be based on a trial-learn approach that helps in conducting quality improvisation (Subramani et al. 2019). It says of conducting smaller-scale test challenges for reducing initial risk. The changes are needed to be planned in a sequential manner so that scope can be defined along with undertaking the areas of improvement.

The above figure shows conducting better planning for the future that will help in conducting future changes for managing the services. Before conducting improvement, it is necessary for the Manger to analyze the issues which are been looked after to improve (Canziani et al. 2016). The issues that the manager is looking to improve are regarding the quality of the foods. The manager is also looking after providing necessary training to the employees by analyzing where they are lacking.

3.3 Discussion on 5 Why’s

In order to analyze the problem areas, this preliminary interrogative tool gets used that helps in defining the areas of problems through the use of 5 why. The 5 Whys helps in managing areas of sourcing along with identifying the issues that are considered to be a technical problem. After analyzing the root causes; it is necessary to eliminate those to avoid iteration of futures (Wolniak and Sułkowski. 2016). Conducting such analysis is considered to be one of the benefits for facilitating areas of problems along with comprehend the cause and effect relation from the core of the problem faced in quality measures. The issues that were identified are:

  • Why 1: Providing better quality foods compared to the market competitions
  • Why 2: Long wait of the customers for getting the service or food
  • Why 3: Customer complains about cleanliness for a cleaning service provider
  • Why 4: Attitude of employees (Garza-Reyes et al. 2018)
  • Why 5: Late delivery in the online order

After identifying the root causes; data gets gathered from the trustworthy sources and from the interview process to analyze the impact that will be created by the PDSA cycle. The gathered data is considered to be useful for facilitating the analysis of previous researches. In order to gather data, 10 managers from different restaurant businesses are considered who are said to be asked a question related to ensuring quality. The people involved in the process are said to be trained to collect specific product-related data. It will impact developing production processes to get managed faster along with ensuring the integration of quality (Anholon et al. 2018).

3.4 Check Sheet

A check sheet is known to be a basic document that is known to get used for collecting the real time and accurate data for recording the errors in the process. It is also seen to get used for recording variations for identifying the root of the problem. Along with it; opinions are also seen to be gathered from the case. Based on the major problems, data are seen to get gathered, which are said to be implemented and addressed before the planning and implementation phase. In the interview part, it came to know that most of the customers expect to get prompt service long with maintaining positive behavior and food quality. All these qualities help in holding the customers to be loyal to the restaurant (Neyestani 2017). It was also mentioned about training the employees to improve the service. Understanding the demand of the customers is necessary as they are considered to be the primary stakeholder of any organization.

The aim of the employees is needed to ensure that the customers are priorities equally and to provide reliable service instead of providing fake promises. In the case of long wait time, it should be mentioned clearly to the customers. As per the view of one of the managers; it was mentioned that customers should not be assured with a shorter time period. Mentioning the appropriate time and trying to serve before that time period helps in pleasing the customers (Talapatra et al. 2018). Along with prioritizing the customers, the employees are also needed to keep encouraged. In order to do so, appraisal bonuses are needed to be taken as a part of the business. Effective communication is needed to be encouraged as it considered being an important principle of any great restaurant service. Ensuring staff meetings will help in understanding where they are lacking and their observation on making changes in any certain area.

Having a proper supply chain is necessary to ensure the quality supply of raw materials. Based on these, a checklist has been developed to note down the issues that are affecting the quality.

Issues

Frequency

Total

Mon

Tues

Wednesday

Thursday

Fri

Saturday

Sunday

Price of raw material

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

3

Market competition

1

3

4

0

2

1

2

13

Supplier delay

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

2

Miscommunication with the customers

3

4

3

2

1

3

2

18

Quality problem

2

3

5

3

2

1

2

18

Table 1: Check sheet based on the identified issues

3.5 Pareto Analysis

Pareto analysis is a technique that gets used for taking the proper course of action. It is considered to be a problem-solving approach that helps in taking the right course of action to ensure maximum benefit for the organization. It is known as a statistical technique that helps in facilitating areas of decision making approaches along with managing the overall effect on the business process. A Pareto chart is known to be facilitating a basic quality for identifying the areas of defects. Drawing a Pareto chart will be helpful in analyzing the areas of problems along with conducting significant improvement for managing the areas of problems (Hosse et al. 2017). Along with these, it also helps in focusing on conducting significant improvements to the business process.

From the chart, it can be seen that communicational issue with the customers has developed issues with the customers who have affected the business. Along with it; quality issues are also considered to equally affective in affecting the decision of the customers. Thus, it is necessary for the managers to work on these areas to ensure a positive experience to be gained by the customers. Based on these, the quality improvement charter is seen to get developed by facilitating the scope of improvement (Willar et al. 2016). Identifying the changes is also required for facilitating areas of the business work process and also to retain customers by providing efficient services. 

3.6 Analysis

Different tools are there that help in conducting improvement to the business cycle. In order to manage the whole process, the PDSA cycle is necessary to be integrated for facilitating areas of the brainstorming process. Problem-solving steps are needed to be developed for setting the target for managing the business work process. After setting the proper planning, creative action plans are needed to be integrated along with evaluating the result to follow up with the process (Nabiilah et al. 2018). PDSA cycle helps in identifying the changes to get improved along with facilitating areas of business opportunities. The aim of integrating the cycle is to facilitate customer satisfaction margin by ensuring quality integration along with ensuring the quality to get maintained in the supply chain line. The main issue on which the manager is looking after is to ensure quality along with educating the employees to ensure proper service to get managed.

PDSA Cycle 1

Plan: Low customer satisfaction is one of the biggest fears of any restaurant. In the case of a new business, the issue is bigger as it has to beat the market competition by ensuring proper price margin and also by managing quality integration. It was observed that most of the customers were providing negative feedback regarding the service and the foods, which clearly indicates that customers were not satisfied with the behavior of the employees (Maruyama and Inoue 2016). Thus, it's necessary for the manager to integrate an efficient leader who ill guides the employees onto behave properly and also provide a score on a weekly basis so that it can be understood on which areas changes are needed to get conducted.

Do: After reviewing the view of the customers, it is necessary to inspect the raw materials and the areas that can affect the quality. Reviewing the raw materials is necessary as the qualities of the raw items are necessary to ensure the outcome to be satisfied. Thus, it is necessary to develop small plans to make sure that it goes executed properly. Ensuring controlled circumstances are necessary for studying the results along with facilitating areas of changes to get conducted that helps in managing the business process (Dudin et al. 2017). Integrating efficient leaders will help in training the employees which will impact on ensuring the quality of the foods.

Study: From the gathered data, it can be seen that most of the customers expect to get prompt service long with maintaining positive behavior and food quality. All these qualities help in holding the customers to be loyal to the restaurant. It was also mentioned about training the employees to improve the service. Understanding the demand of the customers is necessary as they are considered to be primary stakeholders of any organization (Keng and Kamil. 2016). It was also mentioned to be truthful to the customers as its impact on developing a better bond. Along with it, it is also necessary to stay in touch with the suppliers to ensure a transparent supply process to get managed.

Act: Before serving the food to the customer, a quality check is needed to be conducted. For this, quality analysis is needed to be integrated who will look after if the qualities of the items are being looked after or not (Realyvásquez-Vargas et al. 2018).

Conduction of this cycle has been useful in managing daily routine for the individual along with managing the areas of the problem-solving process. It also helps in ensuing areas of project management along with vendor development. As a result, a positive result gets ensured along with satisfied customers.

4. Reflection on Advanced Quality Management

After the conduction of the study, it can be said that the PSDA cycle helps in ensuring a positive brand image to get maintained along with developing areas of business process top get managed properly. Along with improving the business process, it is also required to develop skill sets along with integrating technologies. I believed that the technological integration will result in integrating less human and as a result, fewer problems will be raised. Also the quality team can be integrated who will look after the process to get managed properly. Artificial food coloring is needed to be eliminated along with using fresh ingredients to promote the usage of natural ingredients. Along with the facilities, PSDA cycle several drawbacks, such as;

  • There has no substantial change in the system and the efforts of the improvement cycle could have gone wasted
  • It depends mainly on the method of trial and error which means that the changes have to be adjusted till they are aligned and the desired outcomes are obtained
  • PDSA might have a considerable return on investment but the effort, support, and resources required are underestimated which include methodological expertise, funding, buy-in, and technological innovations

These areas are also needed to be looked after by the managers to ensure the quality issues to get mitigated along with developing proper outcome to the planning. Along with these, I also provide training to employees that are needed for efficient customer service so that the business does not end up losing valuable customers. In order to help the customers to get rid of the wait time boredom, TV can be placed or any complimentary light snacks can be provided. These will help the customers to feel prioritized and also helps in developing a strong customer base. Employees ought to be enabled to handle client debate since it is the leading and most cost-effective way to illuminate an issue. Instantly apologize to the client and take viable activity is necessary to ensure the customers to be loyal to them.

5. Conclusion on Advanced Quality Management

From the above study, it came to know that PDSA methodology is considered to be useful for enabling the users to achieve their QI goals. Customer satisfaction was said to be the primary concern for any manager and for that, the employees are said to be taken under proper observation to analyze on which areas they need improvement. Along with customers; it was also mentioned that employee satisfaction ideas also needed to be considered as it encourages the employees to do more for the organization to ensure a positive brand name. Based on the gathered data, analysis has been done to develop strategic changes to be integrated for ensuring a positive brand name.

Reference List for Advanced Quality Management

Anholon, R., Rampasso, I.S., Ordonez, R.E.C., da Silva, D., Quelhas, O.L.G. and Leal Filho, W. 2018. Observed difficulties during implementation of quality management systems in Brazilian manufacturing companies. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management. Available at: https://srhe.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02602938.2019.1573970 [Accessed on: 1 August 2020 ]

Aziz, R.A. and Morita, H. 2016. National culture, organisational culture, total quality management implementation, and performance: an empirical investigation. International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management19(2), pp.139-159. Available at: https://www.inderscienceonline.com/doi/abs/10.1504/IJPQM.2016.078883 [Accessed on: 2 August 2020 ]

Canziani, B. F., Almanza, B., Frash, R. E., McKeig, M. J., and Sullivan-Reid, C. 2016. Classifying restaurants to improve the usability of restaurant research. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. Available at: https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/IJCHM-12-2014-0618/full/html [Accessed on: 3 August 2020 ]

Dudin, M. N., Smirnova, O. O., Vysotskaya, N. V., Frolova, E. E., and Vilkova, N. G. 2017. The deming cycle (PDCA) concept as a tool for the transition to the innovative path of the continuous quality improvement in production processes of the agro-industrial sector. Available at: https://www.um.edu.mt/library/oar/bitstream/123456789/29512/1/The_Deming_Cycle_%28PDCA%29_Concept_as_a_Tool_for_the_Transition_to_the_Innovative_Path_of_the_Continuous_Quality_Improvement_2017.pdf [Accessed on: 4 August 2020 ]

Garza-Reyes, J. A., Kumar, V., Chaikittisilp, S., and Tan, K. H.2018. The effect of lean methods and tools on the environmental performance of manufacturing organisations. International Journal of Production Economics, 200, 170-180. Available at: https://nottingham-repository.worktribe.com/preview/943969/Submitted%20Version%20-%20R2.pdf [Accessed on: 5 August 2020 ]

Harrison-Walker, L. J. 2019. The critical role of customer forgiveness in successful service recovery. Journal of Business Research95, 376-391. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0148296318303680 [Accessed on: 7 August 2020 ]

Hossen, J., Ahmad, N., & Ali, S. M. 2017. An application of Pareto analysis and cause-and-effect diagram (CED) to examine stoppage losses: a textile case from Bangladesh. The journal of the textile institute, 108(11), 2013-2020. Available at: https://www.academia.edu/download/54181476/Paper_Textile_Institute.pdf [Accessed on: 9 August 2020 ]

Keng, T.C. and Kamil, S.Z. 2016. Implementation of ISO quality management system in construction companies of Malaysia. Journal of Technology Management and Business3(1). Available at: https://publisher.uthm.edu.my/ojs/index.php/jtmb/article/view/1135 [Accessed on: 18 August 2020 ]

Madanat, H.G. and Khasawneh, A.S. 2017. IMPACT OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION ON EFFECTIVENESS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN THE JORDANIAN BANKING SECTOR FROM EMPLOYEES'PERSPECTIVE. Academy of Strategic Management Journal16(1). Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Anis_Khasawneh/publication/318506477_Impact_of_total_quality_management_implementation_on_effectiveness_of_human_resource_management_in_the_Jordanian_banking_sector_from_employees'_perspective/links/599831c1aca272e41d3c3674/Impact-of-total-quality-management-implementation-on-effectiveness-of-human-resource-management-in-the-Jordanian-banking-sector-from-employees-perspective.pdf [Accessed on: 22 August 2020 ]

Maruyama, T., and Inoue, M. 2016. Continuous quality improvement of leadership education program through PDCA cycle. China-USA Business Review, 15(1), 42-49. Available at: http://www.academia.edu/download/44427233/China-USA_Business_Review_ISSN_1537-1514_Vol.15__No.1__2016.pdf#page=47 [Accessed on: 24 August 2020 ]

Mehta, A. and Degi, F.R. 2019. Total quality management implementation, and its barriers in Education system. International Journal of Management, And Social Sciences Review (IJMSSR)1(3). Available at: https://www.infona.pl/resource/bwmeta1.element.ID-7accff6e-4b01-4ad4-9c24-e89af457eebc [Accessed on: 26 September 2020 ]

Nabiilah, A. R., Hamedon, Z., and Faiz, M. T. 2018. Improving quality of light commercial vehicle using PDCA approach. Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (JAMT), 12(1 (2)), 525-534. Available at: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/186358725.pdf [Accessed on: 28 August 2020 ]

Neyestani, B. 2017. Seven basic tools of quality control: The appropriate techniques for solving quality problems in the organizations. Available at SSRN 2955721. Available at: https://www.infona.pl/resource/bwmeta1.element.ID-20fcfc05-1bef-48f4-a832-7e8625cf5bf4/content/partDownload/content/full-text/015caa7c-7ef3-46d3-843b-d69303b98d4c [Accessed on: 3 September 2020 ]

Pai, F. Y., Yeh, T. M., and Tang, C. Y. 2018. Classifying restaurant service quality attributes by using Kano model and IPA approach. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 29(3-4), 301-328. Available at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14783363.2016.1184082 [Accessed on: 5 September 2020 ]

Panuwatwanich, K. and Nguyen, T.T. 2017. Influence of organisational culture on total quality management implementation and firm performance: evidence from the Vietnamese construction industry. Management and Production Engineering Review8. Available at: https://yadda.icm.edu.pl/baztech/element/bwmeta1.element.baztech-94014f74-32dd-40c9-88df-fbfe7a6899c8 [Accessed on: 8 September 2020 ]

Pimentel, L. and Major, M. 2016. Key success factors for quality management implementation: evidence from the public sector. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence27(9-10), pp.997-1012. Pimentel, L. and Major, M., 2016. Key success factors for quality management implementation: evidence from the public sector. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence27(9-10), pp.997-1012. Available at: http://www.academia.edu/download/52591127/Total_Quality_Management_Implementation_Failure_Reasons_in_Healthcare_Sector_Nicolaou_N.pdf [Accessed on: 10 September 2020 ]

Realyvásquez-Vargas, A., Arredondo-Soto, K. C., Carrillo-Gutiérrez, T., and Ravelo, G. 2018. Applying the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Cycle to Reduce the Defects in the Manufacturing Industry. A Case Study. Applied Sciences, 8(11), 2181. Available at: https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JSR/article/view/35638/24497 [Accessed on: 12 September 2020 ]

Subramani, A.K., Jan, N.A., Arumugam, T. and Sasikala, M.S. 2019. Examining the relationship between critical success factors of total quality management implementation and business performance: a structural equation modelling approach. International Journal of Business Excellence17(4), pp.469-486. Available at: https://www.inderscienceonline.com/doi/abs/10.1504/IJBEX.2019.099126 [Accessed on: 14 September 2020 ]

Talapatra, S., Uddin, M.K. and Rahman, M.H. 2018. Development of an implementation framework for integrated management system based on the philosophy of total quality management. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management8(06), p.1507. Available at: https://www.scirp.org/html/8-2121225_85288.htm [Accessed on: 16 September 2020 ]

Willar, D., Trigunarsyah, B. and Coffey, V. 2016. Organisational culture and quality management system implementation in Indonesian construction companies. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management. Available at: https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/ECAM-02-2015-0026/full/html [Accessed on: 18 September 2020 ]

Wolniak, R. and Sułkowski, M. 2016. The reasons for the implementation of quality management systems in organizations. Zeszyty Naukowe. Organizacja i Zarządzanie/Politechnika Śląska, (92), pp.443-455. Available at: https://www.infona.pl/resource/bwmeta1.element.baztech-d6e84ef7-37a6-4415-bd99-3c19fd5f775a/content/partDownload/617d4736-b341-3dbc-9157-db025ba8e2a5 [Accessed on: 20 September 2020 ]

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