Australian Healthcare System within a Global Context

Introduction to Diabetes

Diabetes is one of the major non-communicable issues which directly impact over the individual metabolism leading to raised blood glucose level. Diabetes directly increases the risk for multiple health issues due to the unaddressed health issue leading to a poor health condition that needs to be controlled (Rawal et al., 2017). Different management approaches have been utilized to improve the patient wellbeing related to chronic illness and reduce the burden on the health care sector. Different countries have been exploring the different management approaches to deal with diabetes increasing prevalence rate considering the requirement of the population (Wicaksana et al., 2020). Considering the prevalence of diabetes globally top five countries that have been observed to have a highs rate is China (89.5 million), India (67.8 million), United States (30.7 million), Indonesia (21.0 million) followed by Mexico (13.1 million). Diabetes is considered to be the top ten reason related to global death as it increased the risk for multipole health issue leading to poor wellbeing of the individual (Lin et al., 2020). The study is going to present diabetes and its related aspect considering Australia followed by china by covering political as well as financial influences over management.

Characteristics of Diabetes

Diabetes is one of the non-communicable issues that can be characterized by different factors and it directly impact the individual full-body system. When it comes to the central nervous system there is evident characteristics pattern which can be used to understand diabetic state. Some of the common central nervous system characteristics are polydipsia, polyphagia, lethargy, loss of consciousness and stupor leading to poor wellbeing. Polydipsia is the state in which the thirst of the individual is increased leading to an increasing need for water followed by polyphagia which directly increases the need for food. Lethargy, unconscious and stupor are the poor ability of the individual to concentrate on a particular topic due to the poor mental state (Conti et al., 2017). After the central nervous system, the next are that can be one of the characteristics is eye as blurred vision is one of the major signs in the diabetic state due to the damaged blood vessel related to the eye which in future cause blindness.

The next characteristics feature that is related to diabetes in the patient is the sweet-smelling breath which directly related to elevated ketone level which can lead to a complicated state due to diabetes ketosis. Considerable change in the weight of the individual is another characteristic feature of the patient with diabetes and respiratory issue like hyperventilation or Kussmaul breathing is evident. Some other characteristics feature of diabetic patient are pancreases dysfunction, polyuria, lack of energy and high blood pressure. The wound or cuts also experience slow healing due to the diabetic state leading to an increased risk of infection which is directly related to the poor health condition of the individual. These characteristics features are considered to be the first sign for the diabetic state of the individual further which assessment is required to be sure about the diabetic state (Conget et al., 2016).

Diabetes Management within Australia

Department of Health, (2020) presented the different approaches which have been initiated to address the increased prevalence rate in Australia and assist the patient dealing with the diabetic state. There has been different programs and initiatives has been framed to address all the diabetes-related problem and funds has been raised to accurately implement it in the community. One of the programs is the Australian National Diabetes Strategy 2016-2020 that includes four main strategies which are reviewing diabetes services and care, increasing use of the right health resources, increasing coordination in different government level for healthcare resources and improving focuses of resources. Another program is Diabetes in Australia: Focus on the Future and they have framed seven goals to address different aspect related to diabetes state considering Aboriginal and non-aboriginal population. The third program is the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS) helping the people facing issue due to different type of diabetes considering different products and services for management purposes for the Australian population.

AUSDRISK is the program that has been framed for the better assessment of the population using the short question which has improved the care process for health professionals and patient-facing or at risk of diabetes. The project that has been incorporated in Australia is the Living Guidelines in Diabetes Demonstration Project in which different diabetes organization came together. The project focus over two important aspects which are recommendation for therapy and use of technology for diabetes management in populations. The last project that is conducted in Australia is Australian National Diabetes Audit that been directly connected with the collection of data related to clinical diabetes, patient education and self-care related to the patient (Department of Health, 2020). The findings presented that Australia has been working day and night to support the high prevalence rate in the population related to diabetes and providing all the suitable resources to address the health issue.

Diabetes management within Chin

China has been leading in the prevalence rate of diabetes which needs to be urgently addressed to decrease any complication which can further deteriorate the health of the population in China. One of the short-term strategies that have been implemented in China is National Demonstration Areas and it has a network of 265 areas that have been covered in the strategy. The strategy was framed for the health promotion approach, detection of diabetes and control of the chronic state. The health promotion aspects cover the lifestyle change with the self-management skills to control the diabetic state and improve the management process leading to a decrease in the risk for further health deterioration. China has also framed another strategy as the long term “Health System Integration” and it was framed to confront the challenges related to the diabetic state of the population (Luo et al., 2020).

The strategy has improved the development of a medical centre to address the primary care aspect with a better hospital facility that enhances the hierarchical medical system which is important for diabetes management. China has also planned an approach for the future project which need to be framed to address diabetes and they have been continuously explored to understand their impact. One of the approaches is enhancing the primary care workforce that is required to strengthen the care approach which can sustainably improve diabetes management and assist the patient-facing issue. The second is a strategy to address the inequality in healthcare which is directly increasing complication for the particular group leading to unaddressed health need which causes deteriorated health. The last strategy is related to the technology as it demands the use of artificial intelligence and big data in the management of the diabetic state and improves the quality of care by increasing the accuracy in the delivery of the care approach (Luo et al., 2020).

Political and Financial Influences

The increasing prevalence of diabetes in the Australian population has been one of the major issues and by 2023 it will account for 9% which will directly increase the financial burden due to a 400% rise in expenses that is around $7 billion. The political aspect in Australia has been positively influencing the management approach of diabetes by the increased action of the Australian government and federal government by proposing four regulatory actions. The government has provided the right financial support which is required to improve the lifestyle of the population and increasing their stabilize condition. Using the laws and regulation governed has directly controlled the consumption and environmental influence over the diet, weight or diabetic state of the population (Kaldor et al., 2015).

The Chinees government has been indulging in conducting political and economic reforms to improve socio-economic growth, cultural change and technology advancement to support diabetes management. The government in China has been supporting the population by the positive influence of the politics related to different management approaches like lifestyle intervention program, patient empowerment program or peer support. The lack of financial support has a negative influence on the Chinese population as in 2017 the estimated diabetes cost related to the population is US$109.8 billion that only includes a direct cost. The increased healthcare expenditure directly enhances the burden over healthcare due to the increasing need for healthcare resources (Hird et al., 2019). Comparing the Annual GDP of both the countries is reveal that China is very high than Australia as it is 14, 722, 840M.$ and 1, 359, 330M.$ respectively. The governmental expenditure related to the health sector also high in China which is about 352,140.8 and in Australia, it is 88,877.7 (Country Economy, 2020).

International Agencies

One of the international agencies that are helping the population is World Health Organization as they are playing a major role in helping the population using the international platform to increase diabetes management. World Health Organization has been working to increase the diagnosis of diabetes by improving screening approaches and raising awareness in the population. Covering primary, secondary and tertiary preventive approach World Health Organization using the holistic approach to enhance the quality and safety in the diabetes management approach. Different programs, strategy and health promotion approaches have been framed by the World Health Organization which increase the accessibility of health services for the population worldwide. World Health Organization also provided guidelines for healthcare providers and patient considering the care approach and helped to enhance the management approach for the diabetic state of the patient World Health Organization has been considering the 422 million population worldwide dealing with diabetes and provide them person-centred care which can reduce the health issue related to diabetes (World Health Organization, 2020).

Local Community Initiatives

There are different approaches has been used at the local community level to assist the population facing health issue due to diabetes and these initiates helped to improve the care approach. Health promotion initiates has been conducted at the community level to enhance the accessibility of the population and provide the right care assistance. Some of the health promotion approaches are increase screening for diabetes, educating the population, providing treatment approach and non-pharmacological approaches of care. These approaches have been helping hand in assisting the patient dealing with diabetes and increasing their self-efficacy to address the health condition (Smith et al., 2019). Article presented by Fooladi, (2015) added that nurses are the major care providers and they have an extensive role in the community initiatives. In the community initiatives, nurses are expected to actively participate in the care process and provide the right support to the patient considering the personal and health aspect of the patient. One of the important roles of the community nurses is to enhance the self-management ability of the patient using the different educational approach to allow them to stabilize their health status in future. Resilencing and recovering are the two major skills that are demand from the community nurses leading to a positive impact on the patient health by increasing the management approach for the diabetic state.

Conclusion on Diabetes

The essay can be concluded by adding that diabetes is one of the global burdens that directly increase the risk for deteriorated condition of the population which need urgent attention. There are different characteristics related to the diabetes state considering the impact of the rise of blood glucose level impact over the different part of the body leading to deteriorated state which can increasing risk for a health issue. Australia has been working continuously to address the rising rate of diabetes in the population and framed different initiatives to assist the population dealing with diabetes. One the other China that is one of the leading countries when it comes to the prevalence rate of diabetes has presented short term and long-term strategy to address the increased prevalence rate in the population. Government and financial aspect bother are positively impacting the management approach of diabetes-related to Australia which is evident from the evidence. China has been facing great support from the government but the financial part is still lacking due to increase expenditure in the supply of resources which is required to address diabetic patient care. Different community initiatives have been framed by the active participation of the nurses to assist the patient accurately.

References for Diabetes

Conget, I., Mauricio, D., Ortega, R., Detournay, B. & CHADIG Study investigators (2016). Characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus newly treated with GLP-1 receptor agonists (CHADIG Study): A cross-sectional multicentre study in Spain. BMJ Open6(7), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010197

Conti, C., Mennitto, C., Di Francesco, G., Fraticelli, F., Vitacolonna, E. & Fulcheri, M. (2017). Clinical characteristics of diabetes mellitus and suicide risk. Frontiers in Psychiatry8(40), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00040

Country Economy. (2020). Australia vs China. Retrieved from: https://countryeconomy.com/countries/compare/australia/china

Fooladi M. M. (2015). The role of nurses in community awareness and preventive health. International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery3(4), 328–329.

Hird, T. R., Zomer, E., Owen, A., Chen, L., Ademi, Z., Magliano, D. J., & Liew, D. (2019). The impact of diabetes on productivity in China. Diabetologia, 62,1195-1203. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-019-4875-4 

Kaldor, J. C., Magnusson, R. S. & Colagiuri, S. (2015). Government action on diabetes prevention: time to try something new. The Medical Journal of Australia, 202(11), 578–580. https://doi.org/10.5694/mja14.01611 

Kaldor, J. C., Magnusson, R. S. & Colagiuri, S. (2015). Government action on diabetes prevention: Time to try something new. The Medical Journal of Australia, 202(11), 578–580. https://doi.org/10.5694/mja14.01611 

Lin, X., Xu, Y., Pan, X., Xu, J., Ding, Y., Sun, X. & Shan, P. F. (2020). Global, regional, and national burden and trend of diabetes in 195 countries and territories: An analysis from 1990 to 2025. Scientific Reports, 10(14790), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71908-9

Luo, Z., Fabre, G. & Rodwin, V. G. (2020). Meeting the challenge of diabetes in China. International Journal of Health Policy and Management9(2), 47–52. https://doi.org/10.15171/ijhpm.2019.80

Rawal, L. B., Biswas, T., Khandker, N. N., Saha, S. R., Bidat Chowdhury, M. M., Khan, A., Chowdhury, E. H. & Renzaho, A. (2017). Non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors and diabetes among adults living in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. PloS One12(10), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184967

Smith, J. R., Greaves, C. J., Thompson, J. L., Taylor, R. S., Jones, M., Armstrong, R. & Abraham, C. (2019). The community-based prevention of diabetes (ComPoD) study: A randomised, waiting list-controlled trial of a voluntary sector-led diabetes prevention programme. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 16(112), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-019-0877-3 

Wicaksana, A. L., Hertanti, N. S., Ferdiana, A. & Pramono, R. B. (2020). Diabetes management and specific considerations for patients with diabetes during coronavirus diseases pandemic: A scoping review. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome14(5), 1109–1120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.06.070

World Health Organization. (2020). Diabetes. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/diabetes#tab=tab_1

Yin, J., Kong, A. P. & Chan, J. C. (2016). Prevention and care programs addressing the growing prevalence of diabetes in China. Current Diabetes Reports16(130), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11892-016-0821-8

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