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Life-Course Development for Health Professionals

Parenting styles are closely related to the quality of parent-adolescent relationships. Discuss two parenting styles and compare and contrast their impact upon life-course outcomes for the adolescent as they transition to middle adulthood.

Introduction to Raising Spanish Children with An Antisocial Tendency

The parent-adolescent relationship is found in parenting styles such as authoritative and uninvolved, which are closely related to parent-adolescent relationships. There are variations in parenting styles developed from family and developmental psychology. Parenting styles have a close relationship with parent-adolescent relationships by following the mechanisms that are linked to the parent-adolescent association. In this essay, the parenting styles will be explored which have a close relationship with the quality of parent-adolescent relationships (Pinquart, 2017). Authoritative and uninvolved styles of parenting will be compared and contrasted to analyze the impact on life-course outcomes for adolescents in the transition to middle adulthood.

Parenting-Adolescent Relationship

Parenting style is defined as a constellation of parent’s attitudes and behaviors towards children. Parenting is the typological approach that has a tremendous impact on relationships. The division into four styles of parenting is done based on demandingness and responsiveness. There are variations in parenting styles and parent-child relationship in the context of several factors. Authoritative parents are those who provide warmth and support, also with clearly defined rules and constant discipline (Kenney, Lac & Hummer et al., 2015). The uninvolved style of parenting is related to low demandingness and low responsiveness. Parents following this style of parenting are hard to punish in expecting compliance. Indulgent parenting style is related to high responsiveness and low in demandingness. They satisfy children's needs but fail to have discipline in their relationship also they exhibit behavior control and make more demands for mature behaviors. Fourth is a neglectful or uninvolved parenting style that is related to low demandingness and responsiveness. Neglectful parents are rarely engaged in rearing their child and practicing patient-centered care (Riquelme, García & Serra, 2018). They are hardly bothered about their children in providing warmth and complying with rules and regulations. Adolescence is the period that requires the management of the relationship between youth and parents. Authoritative and uninvolved are the two styles of parenting that are very common in parenting styles. The comparison and contrast of these two styles are authoritative and uninvolved are quite similar styles to each other. In the concerns of parenting, both the styles imply authority, but they have completely different effects and principles on children (Moreno-Ruiz, Estévez & Jiméne et al., 2018).

Parental Warmth

In comparison, uninvolved parents likely to show more warmth, responsiveness, and nurturing to their children than authoritative. The attachment theory was developed by psychologist, Mary Ainsworth in the 1970s states that responsive parenting provides a secure environment to the child. In comparison with uninvolved parents, the children are felt to be more content than authoritative and make less structured environment for children in their middle adulthood period. It is because authoritative parents are responsible for understanding the emotional needs of children and families to have good emotional control. They develop setbacks and resilience to recuperate quickly according to their needs and demands. Authoritative parents are opposite to uninvolved parents as they are opposite in responsiveness and warmth. Uninvolved parents are non-responsive and cold, they view their child with sensitive emotion as suppress and weakness it (Mihret, Dilgasa & Mamo, 2019). Thus, this states that authoritative parents provide secure attachment to the child is responsible for the healthy nurturing of the child (Fuentes, García & Gracia et al., 2015) This will help them in gathering lots of support and structures from family and friends so that family oriented services are offered to them in adulthood. Whereas, in uninvolved parenting style, the lack of resources and intellectual abilities deals with struggling during this period.


Freedom is another factor that compares and contrasts the two styles of parenting as authoritative parents allow their children to seek independence and autonomy. They do not pose tight control over their children to monitor their children's behavior and correct them as needed. Parental monitoring reduces the risk of a child getting involved in delinquency, antisocial behavior, and drug abuse. It is found as an effective and healthy method to build a supportive and warm relationship. Parents of authoritative style involve their children at every stage of decision making, this forms a bidirectional relationship (Kenney et al., 2015). However, in the uninvolved style of parenting, parents discourage their child from independent seeking. They do not involve their children in the decision-making process; however, kids are given orders to follow what their parents say. This states that from the transition to adolescent to middle adulthood, the relationship will get harm in uninvolved parenting to promote developmental trajectories.


In authoritative style of childcare, parents have prospects from their children, whereas, in the uninvolved style of parenting, the parents have no hopes. Uninvolved parents are cold and strict, on the other hand, authoritative parents are warm and strict. Authoritative parents explain and discuss the rules with their children; hence they are open to having a discussion (Suárez-Relinque, Moral Arroyo & León-Moreno et al., 2019). The uninvolved parents give minimum facilities to their children to fulfill their needs of guidance, shelter, nourishment, and shelter. It is because authoritative parents have the confidence to participate in decision making with high self-esteem and assertiveness. Uninvolved parents allow only one-way communication because they blindly expect questions. These children of neglectful parents act emotionally distant from their children and are overwhelmed by their problems (Clark, Yang & McClernon et al., 2015). Hence, authoritative children have more dependency in the transition from adolescence to middle adulthood than uninvolved parents. Though, authoritative children are allowed to critically think about the reason behind every possible problem and solution. Whereas, uninvolved parents do not take opinions from their kids and are mostly not heard.


Uninvolved and authoritative parents have high standards of control over their kids. The psychological control over kids is the main factor of imposing control over kids. The uninvolved parents do not have demands or expectations from their children. Uninvolved parents wonder about under-controlling their children. They used to under-control their children that are not a good act of dealing with the children (Olivari, Wahn & Maridaki-Kassotaki et al., 2015). Thus in parenting, the parents who impose psychological control over their children are believed to be more dependent, apprehensive, and submissive in their middle adulthood than others. Children under this control fight to be free from externalizing behavioral problems and same they experience in middle adulthood.


The non-punitive measures are followed by authoritative parents such as natural consequence and time-in approach to discipline. Both uninvolved and authoritative parents give more freedom to their children by allowing them autonomy and freedom to standards. Uninvolved parents even do not attend parents’ teacher conferences and school events (Kenney et al., 2015). This has a major impact on nurturing of a child from adolescence to middle adulthood as the children of authoritative parents always be punctual to their tasks, whereas, children of uninvolved parents most of the time enjoys freedom and further experience social and economic difficulties.

Conclusion on Raising Spanish Children with An Antisocial Tendency

Hence, the above points discussed states that there are many discrepancies amongst authoritative and uninvolved parenting style for adolescents. The division is done into four styles of parenting based on demandingness and responsiveness. The uninvolved style of parenting is related to low demandingness and low responsiveness. Authoritative parents are those who provide warmth and support, also with clearly defined rules and constant discipline. However, the authoritative style of parenting, parents have expectations from their children. Different characteristics such as personal warmth, freedom, rules, discipline, and control are the distinguishing factors used in the essay.

References for Raising Spanish Children with An Antisocial Tendency

Clark, T. T., Yang, C., McClernon, F. J., & Fuemmeler, B. F. (2015). Racial differences in parenting style typologies and heavy episodic drinking trajectories. Health Psychology34(7), 697. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/hea0000150

Fuentes, M. C., García, F., Gracia, E., & Alarcón, A. (2015). Parental socialization styles and psychological adjustment. A study in Spanish adolescents. Revista de Psicodidáctica20(1), 117-138. http://www.ehu.es/revista-psicodidactica

Garcia, O. F., Lopez-Fernandez, O., & Serra, E. (2018). Raising Spanish children with an antisocial tendency: Do we know what the optimal parenting style is? Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 0886260518818426. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0886260518818426

Kenney, S. R., Lac, A., Hummer, J. F., Grimaldi, E. M., & LaBrie, J. W. (2015). Pathways of parenting style on adolescents’ college adjustment, academic achievement, and alcohol risk. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice17(2), 186-203. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1521025115578232

Mihret, A. M., Dilgasa, G. S., & Mamo, T. H. (2019). Parenting style as correlates of adolescents’ academic achievement motivation of Bate Secondary School, Haramaya, Ethiopia. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies7(2), 172-176. http://www.journals.aiac.org.au/index.php/IJELS/article/view/5366

Moreno-Ruiz, D., Estévez, E., Jiménez, T. I., & Murgui, S. (2018). Parenting style and reactive and proactive adolescent violence: Evidence from Spain. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health15(12), 2634. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122634

Olivari, M. G., Wahn, E. H., Maridaki-Kassotaki, K., Antonopoulou, K., & Confalonieri, E. (2015). Adolescent perceptions of parenting styles in Sweden, Italy, and Greece: An exploratory study. Europe's Journal of Psychology11(2), 244. https://dx.doi.org/10.5964%2Fejop.v11i2.887

Pinquart, M. (2017). Associations of parenting dimensions and styles with externalizing problems of children and adolescents: An updated meta-analysis. Developmental Psychology53(5), 873. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/dev0000295

Riquelme, M., García, O. F., & Serra, E. (2018). Psychosocial maladjustment in adolescence: Parental socialization, self-esteem, and substance use. Anales de Psicología34(3), 536. http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/analesps.34.3.315201

Suárez-Relinque, C., del Moral Arroyo, G., León-Moreno, C., & Callejas Jerónimo, J. E. (2019). Child-to-parent violence: Which parenting style is more protective? A study with Spanish adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health16(8), 1320. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081320

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Nursing Assignment Help

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