The acute pain is considered to be one of the common complaints of the patient upon administration and it is considered to be distress feeling that directly increases the discomfort of the individual. The level of the acute pain directly depends on the patient perception and intensity of the pain that has occurred due to stimulus (Ramia et al. 2017). Acute pain is considered to be the unpleasant sensory and emotional feeling that occurs due to any damage which increases the discomfort of the patient. Acute is considered to act as a danger signalling to body that aware the system about the injury by provoking the ‘fight or flight’ responses that directly disturb the different body functioning like heart rate, respiratory rate and dilated pupils.
The acute pain also leads to behavioural change that can due to discomfort faced by the patient which include crying, irritation and resisting touching to the particular area (Jungquist et al. 2017). The acute pain is considered to be mild and serves as a protective agent while chronic pain is considered to the persistent pain that directly decreases the efficiency of the individual. The acute pain act to aware the individual about the injury but if the proper intervention is not used then the transition occur from acute to chronic that increases the difficulty of the individual. The pain can be categorized by the use of a pain score scale that helps to understand the intensity of the pain according to personal perception (Griffioen et al. 2017).
The chronic pain is considered to the persistent pain for around three months that is not bearable which increase the complication of the individual. The chronic pain directly increases the disability of the individual and it became difficult to manage the chronic pain. The post-surgical occur at the site of the incision or related area that increases the postoperative complication of the individual (Glare et al. 2019). The pathophysiological effects of the opioid medication have analgesics effect to manage the pain of the individual. The opioid is of two types natural or synthetic that directly binds to the opioid receptor activation which inhibits the neurotransmitter release.
The decreased release of neurotransmitter cause inhibition of the neuronal excitation that leads to blockage of the spinal cord pain transmission. There are certain side effects associated with opioids like drowsiness, constipation, nausea and vomiting (Mallick‐Searle & Fillman, 2017). The medication is prescribed to William to reduce the post-operative pain and increase the comfort of the patient.
The increase complication associated with the Crohn's disease increases the need for assessment to analyse the current condition of William to reduce complication.
The first intervention is going to address the difficulty of William during respiration as he is given with the oxygen therapy to improve his oxygen saturation. The breathing exercise can become an effective way to improve the breathing rate of the individual and improving the capacity of the lungs. The breathing exercise included a different set of that directly aim to improve the endurance of the individual like diaphragm breathing exercise, lip breathing, inspiratory breathing exercise and expiratory breathing exercise. The breathing exercise help to reduce the breathing burden of the individual that has increased his/her complication and it will assist to slowly improve the breathing rate of the individual. The nurses with the therapist can help the patient to perform the breathing exercise that will directly help the patient to reduce the complication associated with breathing (Kang et al. 2016).
Morphine is considered to be a promising method that is used as an analgesic to reduce the pain of the patient. It is the affinity for the delta, kappa and mu-opioid receptor and on binding with this receptor activates the descending inhibitory pathway that directly reduces the nociceptive transmission. There are four routes of administration of the morphine but nurses are expected to prefer the patient choice during morphine administration. The four methods that are used for administration include orally, intravenously, epidural and intrathecal.
The benefit associated with morphine admiration includes a reduction in pain, sedation, high potency and haemodynamic stability increase in use in reducing the post-operative pain. The adverse reaction that associated with morphine administration includes dizziness, constipation, vomiting, nausea and sedation. The dose of the morphine should be according to the patient current health status as higher dose can cause a toxic reaction to the patient like asthma, misbalance in respiratory rate. The morphine administration can cause serious complication so the patient should be aware of the treatment process so that he can know the side effect associate with morphine that he/she can encounter during treatment (Hartley et al. 2018).
The William has prescribed morphine with patient-controlled analgesia that is required to reduce the pain that has occurred due to the post-operative pain. The patient-controlled administration helps the patient to self-administer the medicine by the help of a computerized pump. The use of a computerized pump for the administration of the medicine requires an accurate understanding of the pump. The nurses are expected to increase understanding of the patient toward correct use of the pump. The nurse is expected to continuously monitor the patient using the analgesic to understand the effect of the morphine on the individual and can assist the patient during any issue or side effect. The patient should be monitored about the correct use of the pump to reduce the complication that can occur due to incorrect use of the computerized pump. The patient-controlled analgesia is also associated with one disadvantage that occurs due to error in the software that leads to complication (Koh et al. 2015).
The nurses should aware the William about the morphine administration and its effect over the and why it is used to reduce the pain. The nurses should also help the patient to understand the different side effect associated with the morphine administration that will help to increase the understanding of the patient.
The morphine is one of the analgesic medicines that is used to reduce the acute or chronic in the patient has major suffering. Morphine administration leads to many side effects that directly deteriorate the health status of the patient prescribed with morphine. Nausea and vomiting are the most common side effect that is associate with morphine administration and that directly increase the discomfort of the patient. There is some other side effect that involved increasing the discomfort of the patient which include sweating and dry mouth that alter the dietary intake of the patient. There is some other side effect hat is associate with medication like sedation, constipation, respiratory depression, dizziness, and confusion.
The direct effect of the morphine affects the physical as well as mental wellbeing of the individual and directly decreases the wellness of the individual (Zeilmaker-Roest et al. 2018). The case study indicates that William has much side effect that is associated with morphine administration like unconscious, misbalanced pulse and breathing difficulty. The deteriorated health status of the patient concerning the morphine administration requires urgent reporting to the senior staff to provide accurate care to the patient. Nursing and Midwifery Board (2017) standard state that nurses are expected to immediately report to the senior staff if they encounter any negative effect of the care over the patient that is involved to increase the discomfort of the patient. The deteriorated health status of the William is due the morphine and nurse should immediately report the scenario to the senior nurses so that appropriate action can be done to improve the health status of the patient by providing accurate care.
Duff, W., Haskey, N., Potter, G., Alcorn, J., Hunter, P., & Fowler, S. (2018). Non-pharmacological therapies for inflammatory bowel disease: Recommendations for self-care and physician guidance. World journal of gastroenterology, 24(28), 3055–3070. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v24.i28.3055
Glare, P., Aubrey, K. R., & Myles, P. S. (2019). Transition from acute to chronic pain after surgery. The Lancet, 393(10180), 1537–1546. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(19)30352-6
Griffioen, M. A., Greenspan, J. D., Johantgen, M., Von Rueden, K., O’Toole, R. V., Dorsey, S. G., & Renn, C. L. (2017). Acute pain characteristics in patients with and without chronic pain following lower extremity injury. Pain Management Nursing, 18(1), 33–41. doi:10.1016/j.pmn.2016.10.002
Hartley, C., Moultrie, F., Hoskin, A., Green, G., Monk, V., Bell, J. L. & Slater, R. (2018). Analgesic efficacy and safety of morphine in the Procedural Pain in Premature Infants (Poppi) study: randomised placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet, 392, 2595-2605. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(18)31813-0
Carla, J., April, V., Corinna, S., Kyung, K & Rosemary, P. (2017). Assessing and Managing Acute Pain: A Call to Action. AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 117. 4-11. 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000513526.33816.0e.
Kang, J. I., Jeong, D. K., & Choi, H. (2016). The effects of breathing exercise types on respiratory muscle activity and body function in patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of physical therapy science, 28(2), 500–505. https://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.28.500
Koh, J. C., Lee, J., Kim, S. Y., Choi, S., & Han, D. W. (2015). Postoperative Pain and Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia-Related Adverse Effects in Young and Elderly Patients: A Retrospective Analysis of 10,575 Patients. Medicine, 94(45), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000002008
Luján-Sanchis, M., Sanchis-Artero, L., Larrey-Ruiz, L., Peño-Muñoz, L., Núñez-Martínez, P., Castillo-López, G., González-González, L., Clemente, C. B., Albert Antequera, C., Durá-Ayet, A., & Sempere-Garcia-Argüelles, J. (2016). Current role of capsule endoscopy in
Crohn's disease. World journal of gastrointestinal endoscopy, 8(17), 572–583. https://doi.org/10.4253/wjge.v8.i17.572
Mallick‐Searle, T., & Fillman, M. (2017). The pathophysiology, incidence, impact, and treatment of opioid‐induced nausea and vomiting. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 29(11), 704–710. doi:10.1002/2327-6924.12532
Murphy, P. B. & Barrett,M. J. Morphine.Treasure Island, United Kingdom: StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-.
Nursing and Midwifery Board. (2017). Professional Standard. Retrieved from: https://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/codes-guidelines-statements/professional-standards/registered-nurse-standards-for-practice.aspx
Ramia, E., Nasser, S. C., Salameh, P., & Saad, A. H. (2017). Patient Perception of Acute Pain Management: Data from Three Tertiary Care Hospitals. Pain Research and Management, 2017, 1–12. doi:10.1155/2017/7459360
Smith , D., & Bowden , T. (2017). Using the ABCDE approach to assess the deteriorating patient. Nursing Standard, 32(14), 51–63. doi:10.7748/ns.2017.e11030
Steinhagen, E., Colwell, J., & Cannon, L. M. (2017). Intestinal Stomas-Postoperative Stoma Care and Peristomal Skin Complications. Clinics in colon and rectal surgery, 30(3), 184–192. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0037-1598159
Veazie, S., Peterson, K., Ansari, Y., Chung, K. A., Gibbons, C. H., Raj, S. R., & Helfand, M. (2017). Fludrocortisone for orthostatic hypotension. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2017(12), CD012868. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012868
Zeilmaker-Roest, G.A., van Rosmalen, J. & van Dijk, M. (2018). Intravenous morphine versus intravenous paracetamol after cardiac surgery in neonates and infants: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 19(318), 1-11.
Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Clinical Reasoning Assignment Help
5 Stars to their Experts for my Assignment Assistance.
There experts have good understanding and knowledge of university guidelines. So, its better if you take their Assistance rather than doing the assignments on your own.
What you will benefit from their service -
I saved my Time (which I utilized for my exam studies) & Money, and my grades were HD (better than my last assignments done by me)
What you will lose using this service -
Unfortunately, i had only 36 hours to complete my assignment when I realized that it's better to focus on exams and pass this to some experts, and then I came across this website.
Kudos Guys!Jacob "
Proofreading and Editing$9.00Per Page
Consultation with Expert$35.00Per Hour
Live Session 1-on-1$40.00Per 30 min.
Doing your Assignment with our resources is simple, take Expert assistance to ensure HD Grades. Here you Go....