Alice Springs Town Council Arts and Cultural Policy 2017-2021.
Creative and Cultural Industries.
Northern Territory Library Donations Policy.
Northern Territory Library Strategic Plan 2015-18.
Arts and culture can effectively serve as a transformative as well as a meditative means for both the audience as well as the creators. Arts and culture are also often used for fostering a higher and improved understanding of others within a community and maintaining harmony in the community (Department of Arts and Museums, 2015). Moreover, arts and culture aids in obtaining educational and economic outcomes which eventually helps to improve the community at large. The arts and culture industries remain an intrinsic part of Australia’s history as well as heritage and have been increasingly contributing to the success of the Australian economy.
The Northern Territory of Australia is well known for its diverse community as well as its creative and famous artists. The Aboriginal community plays a significant role in the diverse art and culture of the region and their contribution is significantly acknowledged as well (Department of Arts and Museums, 2015). The art and the artists of the Northern Territory are commonly known for their detailed and intrinsic and artistic excellence. The museums, galleries, and libraries alike in the Northern Territory pay great attention to the conservation of the art and culture of the region. The artistic works of the Northern Artists significantly display the rich culture and heritage of the people. Additionally, the artwork is a means to tell stories and celebrate the diverse history and culture across the Northern Territory. Hence, when developing policies and implementation of strategies for the art and culture of northern Australia, the government ought to distinctly keep in mind the importance of the preservation and the promotion of the art and culture of Northern artists. The aim of this assessment is to critically evaluate the art and culture policy approach to northern Australia.
Creative Nation, the very first Australian policy on arts and culture, was implemented in 1994 by then Prime Minister Paul Keating (Northern Territory Government, 2017). The first impact of this policy was significantly great due to the 252 million dollar commitment to be laid out over four years solely to the arts and cultural industries of Australia. The legacy of this policy remained close to Australian arts and cultural history due to the profound impact it had on the industry. Creative Nation played a key role in changing the mindsets of Australians and their perspective in the way they saw themselves and their own place in this world. Places such as Northern Australia have a significant land-based economy. Hence, the Australian government along with the local Northern government's priorities arts and culture activities due to the increase in the capital and the industry brings by facilitating community development outcomes. Prioritizing is especially important in Northern Australia as families tend to look for places with a firm cultural environment while investors, on the other hand, look for stable, safe, and creative or innovative places that are most likely to attract skilled labor.
When developing an arts and culture policy for the Northern Territory, it is important to take into account the following factors: distinctly define what can and cannot be defined as art and culture, identify cultural weaknesses and strengths in the Northern Territory, existing policies, etc. When it comes to the art and culture of Northern Australia, it is noteworthy to state that the Northern Territory has its own very unique identity. This uniqueness comes from various aspects such as the climate of the region, the topography, the natural environment, and most importantly, the Aboriginal people and their culture and deep-rooted connection knowledge of the land (Dew et al., 2019). Due to the uniqueness of not just the land and demographic importance of the Northern Territory but also the fine art that is characteristics to the region, the Australian government has reiterated the importance of making arts and culture an intrinsic part of the lives of those in the region. The art of the Northern Territories has been collected and preserved in various museums and libraries have been made accessible to the public (McShane, 2017). From this, various other artists from outside the territory have drawn inspiration in creating their own piece of art.
In preserving and growing community engagement, the artistic activity must be made accessible as well as affordable. However, in Australia, developing anaudience and marketing arts and culture has grown to become a sophisticated discipline wherein the understanding and clarity of the art and culturalactivities can be done through the use of various platforms such as social media. However, what remains essential to the presentation and production of arts and culture is that it requires much hard work and adequate soft infrastructure.
When it comes to soft infrastructure, arts and culture activities require both formal and informal spaces for activities such as performance and exhibition, along with facilities for the conservation, storage, and presentation of artifacts and other artistic productions. Additionally, there is a great need for the provision of places to accommodate art workers and organizations. Part of the soft infrastructure includes assets such as skills, people, market data, and networks that aid cultural and creative activities. In recent years, many northern state and territory governments have undertaken audits exercises to retrace ad gain knowledge on the current cultural infrastructure so that they can take future decisions and form strategies on that basis. In line with this, several governments in Australia have, in fact, undertaken initiatives and have invested in major art facilities such as the Gallery of Modern Art in Brisbane, Glassworks in Canberra, and the Melbourne Recital Centre. Additionally, when it comes to the northern territory, the redevelopment and transformation of the Chan building into a space for a gallery for the Museum and Art Gallery in Darwin is another such example of investments made in major new facilities.
While the government may take initiatives and steps forward in preserving and displaying the Northern arts and culture, a challenge however remains the government and the Northern community alike. The challenge of maintaining and meeting the required costs of new as well as existing culture infrastructure continues to exist. There is a need for developing business models that can sustain ongoing operational and maintenance costs of cultural infrastructures.
In order to understand and critique this policy, one must first understand the Alice Springs Town Council first. This council was established in 1971and currently consists of eight councillors and one mayor (Northern Territory Government, 2017). The Alice Springs Town Council aims to improve the lives of the people living in the community by developing and supporting initiatives of community infrastructure which fulfills the purpose of the community and contributes to the achievement of the community members’’ aims. The mission of the Community and Cultural development department of the Alice Springs Town Council include: to achieve community networks, developing and delivering Community Grants program, providing access to a wide range of community events, promote and develop vibrant local arts and cultural industry, etc.
The community of Alice Springs is immensely rich in culture and supports the artistic excellence of people from various age groups, abilities, and backgrounds. The key cultural assets which play a significant role in advantaging the successful implementation of the policy is the landscape of the town, the rich history and cultural heritage of the town and its people, local stories which are filled with cultural richness, the creativity of local artists, and the unique Indigenous arts and culture (Northern Territory Government, 2017).
The Alice Springs Town Council Arts and Cultural Policy recognize the importance of investing in local arts and cultural activity. In order to improve the cultural vibrancy of Alice Springs, the Town Council of Alice Springs along with the Northern Territory Government has developed the Arts and Cultural Policy and Arts and Cultural plan of 1017-2021. This policy as five goals which are;
The key components of the Alice Springs Town Council Arts and Cultural Policy 2017-2021include culture, arts, and artists, cultural herniate, cultural and creative industries, and creative occupations (Northern Territory Government, 2017).
Culture is perceived as being something that is more than art. It is the perception of the artist and the unique development of expression. Culture is created by the artists and uses a reflection of the artists as well as the society or community at large.
Source: Nocca, 2017
The arts comprises of all creative activities and pursuits across all domains which are related to the development of art, enjoyment, and experience. According to the policy, this includes visual arts and crafts, music, literature, community arts, arts of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community, musical theatre and opera, puppet shows, comedy, exhibitions, festivals, media art, bespoke fashion, art that is wearable, print media archives and museums, design, public art, experimental and emerging arts, film, digital media, heritage and collections in institutions such as libraries, and dance of all forms.
According to the policy, artists commonly demonstrate fine skills in creative interpretation, show professionalism in performances, have specialized training in their field, actively involved, and engage in contemporary social issues and art movements, processes, and styles.
Cultural heritage can be defined as something which is passed on from one generation to the next. A community’s cultural heritage reflects the community’s history and serves as a point of reference for where a community wishes to see itself in the future.
Creative industries as defined as the following, according to the Alice Springs Town Council Arts and Cultural Policy:
Creative occupations are occupations in the creative and cultural industries. These occupations are defined in the policy as the following: writers, film editors, art managers, creative producers, game designers, digital designers, curators, industrial designers, artists, architects, scriptwriters, archivists, software developers, etc.
Alice Springs Town Council Arts and Cultural Policy 2017-2021essentially builds on a variety of previous policies including the Alice Springs Town Council Strategic Plan 2013-2017, the Alice Springs Town Council recreation Policy, Alice Springs Town Council Public Art Policy, Northern Territory Compact Urban Growth Policy, Northern Territory Government Economic Development Plan, etc. The review and evaluation of the Springs Town Council Arts and Cultural Plan 2017 – 2021 aims to look for key indicators such as audience attendance, the impact on the audience, level of participation in arts and cultural activities, the presence of participation opportunities, etc.
Although this policy aims for the betterment and overall development of Alice Springs town, the policy lacks information on the actual steps that are to be taken towards achieving the desired objectives. Additionally, there is no indication of any budget allocation by the Alice Town Council. To achieve audience satisfaction, greater participation, etc., there ought to be a provision of improvedresourcesavailable for participants such as accessories for various cultural performances. Moreover, while effect implementation and integration of the policy is mostly the responsibility of authorities, it is essential to encourage community member to not only participate but to also improve their craft. This will not only help in diversifying the kind of arts and culture productions but also attract more audiences and tourists from other regions. The advantage of Northern Australia lies in the cultural diversity of the residence. The Aboriginal community ought to be taken on board by not just attempting to persuade them to participate but also educate them on how to better their craft. Although they may already be deeply involved in their craft and they may be refined in it too, however, education on other ways to deliver their craft is essential in the age of technology. Educating them on the many ways they can use technology to save their work ought to be part of an Arts and Cultural Policy which aims to have the best interest if the people at heart (Devlin, Disbray& Devlin, 2017).
The Vibrant NT is an art and cultural policy for the Northern Territory, similar to Alice Springs Town Council Arts and Cultural Policy. This policy has been designed to work in the strategic plan of Framing the Future (Northern Territory Government, 2016). The Vibrant NT marks a landmark strategic policy in the arts and culture domain of the Northern Territory. Arts and culture are an essential and vital part of the Northern Territory lifestyle and preserving it is important for the country's diversity. The leading priorities of the Vibrant NT are:
Unlike the Alice Springs Town Council Arts and Cultural Policy, the Vibrant NT policy demonstrates a constructive plan in a stage-wise fashion. The first stage of the Vibrant NT is to recognize the principles and values which contribute and underpin the policy. This is an ongoing process and a recurrent part of the policy implementation process. The second sate is the regeneration and of programs and developing strategic initiatives across the government in support of the overall vision of the policy. The second stage is expected to take between 3 to five years to develop and implement. The third stage is described in the Vibrant NT policy is the stage of reviewing and evaluating the strategies and goals of the vision of the policy. This stage will take place after 5 years. The fourth and final state is the reinvestment stage where the revised plan and strategies are implements. This stage will take five more years.
The Vibrant NT policy was formed after conducting an online survey, written submissions, and one on one discussion with individual businesses and leading sectors. This is an efficient approach to policy development and implementation when it comes to the art and culture of Northern Australia. As the government of the northern terror, the government recognizes the richcultural history and heritage of the people which continues to reflect in their artworks and cultural activities. The government,in collaboration with the people of the Northern Territory, aim to promote the art and culture of the region why encourage the growth of small business and attracting tourism through large scale and detailed cultural activities and art exhibitions. This policy has research that measures and evaluates the impact the art and culture activities of the area have on its people (Northern Territory, 2020).
In addressing the art and cultural policies of Northern Australia, one must also take into account the art and cultural policies of Australia in general. As part of the Australian art and cultural policy history, it has been made known that national policies aimed at cultural activities aimed mainly at funding towards literature, performing arts, and the visual arts (McShane, 2016). The reframing of the national cultural policy of Australia I took place as recent as 2009. This was in response to the 2008 global financial crisis and an attempt to engage in a network of senior ministers to gain their attention. The policies developed for the preservation and promotion of the Northern Territory are meant to be strategic due to the economic and cultural implications stemming from the ethnic complexity of the North. Hence, along with the national arts and cultural policy of Australia, state and territory governments have developed policies that build on the national policy. While some regions develop their arts and culture a lot more extensively due to the common interest of the government and the society (like The Australian Ballet Foundation and the Australian Opera which are examples of non-government organizations), others have to be consciously recognized by both government and non-government organizations to gain a boost.
It may be well known that the Northern Australian region is both cultural and historically rich, however, it cannot be ignored that it continues to be marginalized by the rest of the country. The government along with the Australian society at large continuously rejects and neglects these marginalized communities. Hence, effective policy generation and implementation are essential to the development and conservation of the arts and culture of the Northern Territory. Creative industries play a key driver in the economic growth and development in both developing as well as developed countries. Due to this, the Australian government has grown to vest interest in the Northern region due to this. The Northern region of Australia is now seen as the key to future economic and population growth.
To help grow and improve the arts and culture preservation and promotion of the Northern territories, other policies include the Donations Policy which accepts donations in the form of collection material, personal papers, manuscripts, photographs, etc. This policy encourages people in the North as well as others in the county to donate and contribute to enriching the cultural art collections of the Northern Territory Library (Northern Territory Government, n.d.). This policy merely encourages Austrians and the residents of the Northern Territory to simply give up important and significant art prices and the likes, expecting it out of the goodwill of the people. However, educated citizens know the value of these pieces and may not readily want to give them up. Hence, part of the policy ought to include a reward price to compensate for the donated piece and encourage the donator to perform more such goodwill acts in the future.
In reference to the arts and cultural policy of the Northern Territory, the Northern Territory had also developed the Northern Territory Library Strategic Plan 2015-18. This strategic plan was developed to respond to the diverse needs of the communities of the Northern Territory. This plan acknowledges the need to use the library for performances and aims to deliver on the needs of the people in terms of their arts and cultural aims and aspirations. The Northern Territory Library is a place for the community to come together to share, create, and celebrate the stories of the territory. It is also a place of learning and creating new ideas, hence, it is important to be made accessible to all. This Strategic Plan was formulated after having extensive talks with the people of the community on the ways they used the library and the needs which they wished would be further fulfilled. The key priorities of this policy include the following:
The Northern Territory library policies are essential to the arts and culture presentation, conservation, and exhibition of the area. A library is a crucial place not just to storing important artwork and other heritage and culture related documentation but also to provide a place for the Northern Territory residence to perform, meet and, communicate for the purpose poof sharing stories, knowledge, and coming up with new innovative ideas which reflect the diversity of the various communities of the region.
Apart from the purpose of preserving and exhibiting the arts and culture of the North, the policies for the art and culture of the North have an economic interest as well. The potential of the creative industry is playing a major role in the economic recovery that has come to light following the devastating global economic crisis at the turn of the twenty-first century (Daniel, Fleischmann & Welters, 2016). The creative industry of the Northern Australian region has had a significant contribution in the economic growth of the Northern Territory and the country at large. An example of the significant impact arts and cultural activities and festivals have on the economy is the notable development of the rural Northern Rivers region of the New South Wales. The Northern Rivers region of the New South Wales now has the highest number of screen practitioner’s part from big cities such as Sydney and Melbourne. The revenue collected from these activities; however, need a separate policy on their own.
While the government of Australia along with those of the Northern Territory have been effectively focusing on the arts and culture development of the communities, is important that a sum of the revenue that is gained from these activities is dedicated to the overall development of the community at large. The Indigenous community is highly skilled in their own traditional arts and craft and while the arts and cultural policies focus mainly of the arts and culture segment of the community, it is essential that over key areas are also developed such as the education and wellbeing of the community. Although the Government of Australia has developed and implemented laws and policies to improve the lives of the Indigenous people, is essential that a segment of the funds generated from showcasing their art and culture is dedicated to the betterment of the Indigenous community. Policies with regards to social work and mental health, education and awareness of the Indigenous community ought to be brought to light and the money gained from exhibiting their art and culture must contribute to the improvement of other segments of their lives.
The key goal of the government in focusing on the arts and culture of Northern Australia lies in reviving the economy and boosting income flow of the country. While that is essential for the smooth running of the country, it is only ethical that the money is also used to improve the lives of those because of whom the find has been generated in the first place. Additionally, while the Northern Territory has been a region of key focus in recent times, it was not so previously. Due to this, the region lacks behind in terms of infrastructure. The Northern region is heavily prone to cyclones and other climate changes, and lacks efficient road and transportation system to link it to major cities and capitals. Hence, the creative industry in this tropical region of Australia run the risk of remaining highly under0researched especially in terms of the potential of the creative sector of the Northern people and the potential contribution of the country’s economic recovery.
The history of government policies regarding the development of Northern Australia is almost a hundred years old. However, it was not until the 1990s that any significant mentions were made in terms of the arts and culture of Northern Australia. Among the key reason for the neglect of the arts and culture of the other region is possible due to the lack if definition of arts and culture. The creative industry is often misunderstood with ongoing debates on what actually constitutes as arts and culture. Also, another reason for this neglect is the under representation of the significant economic boost the creative industry has the potential to have. Additionally, the most recent cultural policy (Creative nation) which was lauded in 2014 and that which was lauded as the significant cultural development policy after Australia’s first cultural development policy which was Creative Nation, seems to have been forgotten due to the change in the government. Furthermore, even though policies were created for the arts and culture of Northern Australia, the largest infrastructure communications project of Australia has experienced multiple delays which have resulted in further delays, technical changes, and cost increases in implementing the art and cultural policies of not just Northern Australia bit the rest of the country too. In addition to the recent deductions in the funding of arts and cultural initiatives, the conservative government of Australia has further made it complex for the art and culture industry by developing the separate grant system known as Catalyst.
The future of the creative industry of Northern Australia is fraught with complicated and complex challenges. The most recent national art and cultural policy document policy only makes a few references to the art and culture of Northern Australia. This means that the government of Australia does not consider the region as one which has the potential to make a significant economic contribution to the country. The lack of adequate references to the art and culture of the North also suggests that the creative sector of the region is both under-developed and cannot be easily measured; hence, it fails to be part of the government’s plan for growth and remains heavily misunderstood for its potential for economic activity. Also, the sheer size and the geographical spread along with the limited population of the Northern Australia contribute to the limited potential growth for the areas creative industry due to the heavy implications of the cost of infrastructure development. For example, the cities of Townsville and Cairns have not had any substantial consultation nor have any resolved debate on the possible development of a specialized infrastructure dedicated to arts and culture in the respective city centers. This issue is future unlikely to be resolved in the foreseeablefuture given the current fiscal climate of Northern Australia. Moreover, given the aforementioned delays in rolling out of the NBN, Northern Australian creative projects seem to further be hampered due to the great distances and limited communication infrastructure in the area.
The flaw in the policies developed for the improvement and conservation of the art and culture of Northern Australia further lies in the isolation of the region. Northern Australia is isolated and due to this, opportunities to attract hosts from various parts of the country and the world in hopes to develop the area cannot be fulfilled due to the lack of accessibility to the region. Also, since Northern Australia is isolated, those in the area who wish to undertake professional development in other cities or in other countries are posed with fiscal challenges. Those from other cities or countries, on the other hand, will also face challenges in accessing Northern Australia if they wished to undertake any form of professional development activities in the region.
The policies mentioned din this report may aim to develop the art and culture of Northern Australia, however, there is a collective failure of other policies which the art and culture policies aim to build on. For example, if the policy to develop road and transportation infrastructure of the region lags behind, the art and culture policy aim to attract international tourists will also lag behind due to the isolated and remote geographic position of Northern Australia. Hence, it is imprint, when accessing the effectiveness of art and culture policies develop for the betterment of NorthernAustralia, who evaluate it on a holisticlevel and with a holistic approach. Since NorthernAustralia has been largely neglected for decade, the region is not fully equipped in terms of infrastructure. This hampers the accessibility of the area in attracting visitors for art and cultural festivals. Hence, even if the community of Alice Springs Town develops and implements an art and culture exhibition, the number of international visitors would be very less. Hence, in order to effectively address the issue of the Northern part of the country, policies ought to first address the fragmentation of Northern Australia.
The communities of Northern Australia will have to reach out to other sectors of the economy to showcase the amount of potential the region holds and work together in strategic ways to highlight the potential that the creative industry of Northern Australia holds. Effective governance could envision the numerous ways the potential of Northern Australia could be used to contribute to the economy of the country. However the current lack of both interest as well as policies is huge. Another drawback of Northern Australia lies in the fact that some creative industries such as film making tend to strive much better in bigger cities (due to access to opportunities) which means that while the locals of Northern Australia may not be able to gain access to opportunities in the North, they may migrate to the cities to practice their art and culture. This would leave Northern Australia with little or no more creative people left. Towns such a Cairns, Townsville, and Darwin are not only significantly underdeveloped but also significantly under populated. This also means that the creative industry of Northern Australia lack critical mass. There is lack of workforce and audience which further puts policy implementation at loss. Even though various communities developed a policy catering to teach cities, coordination and communication would be made impossible due to the vast distance between the cities, especially cities such as Cairns, Townsville and Darwin which are significantly far apart. The distance between these cities would entail transportation costs which need to be covered in all the policies mentioned above. The cost of transportation to tour productions or art events is a challenge due to lack of funds.
None of the policies mentioned in this report Alice Springs Town Council Arts and Cultural Policy 2017-2021, Vibrant NT, Northern Territory Library Donations Policy, Northern Territory Library Strategic Plan 2015-18 address the issue of the harsh climate conditions of Northern Australia and how the government aims to tackle these issues to promote the region’s art and culture. The harsh climate of Northern Australia includes severe high temperature, humidity droughts, monsoon rain, and continuous threats of cyclone. This result in the hesitation of tourists to visit Northern Australia die to climate related threats to their lives. Hence, the cultural tourism, tourism in general, as well the potential for new visitors of both national and international places is challenged. Those charged with developing policies to develop the area and its arts and culture to aid economic advantages to the country are continuously posed with these challenges. Hence, as part of the art and cultural policies, the government of Northern Australia ought to develop strategic plans and implement them in partnership with the central government of Australia. To mitigate climatic and environmental threats and develop disaster related responses in the case of natural disasters ought to form an intrinsic part of the art and cultural policy of Northern Australia (Russell-Smith, Whitehead & Cooke, 2009).
The core weakens of the cultural policies mentioned in this report lies in the inherent weakness in making a constructive argument that justify reasons why both government and non-government organizations should invest in Northern Australia (Caust, 2015). The existing policies are limited on to the people of Northern Australia instead of focusing on the key issues which will lead to the successful implementation of the policies. While policies have been developed with the aim of the betterment of the community of Northern Australia, they do not address the issue such as lack funding, climate influences, and other important factors that shape the face of Northern Australia’s culture and art. Unless and until social and environmental issues are not address at the grassroots level, art and culture policies of Northern Australia will continue to have little or no progress and will continue to be forgotten with the passage of time. Therefore, when developing a policy related to the art and culture of Northern Australia, the government must conduct a survey not only among the residents of Northern Australia but a nationwide survey that engages the country and measures the level of interest citizens have in the unique art and culture of Northern Australia. This will help in evaluating the types of investments which may come in to aid the development of the region and the types of opportunities that may be made available with the support of both the government as well as the society outside Northern Australia,
The damage done by the Australian government’s neglect of northern Australia is one which will take significant aim to address. There are numerous challenges and obstacles which ought to be addressed with regards to helping the creative industry of Northern Australia to evolve. Significant changes need to be made in existing policies and these changes must be thoroughly followed up with. Failing to systematically address the various challenges within a policy context will result in the failure to achieve the vision of Northern Australia. Additionally research is much needed for the branding of the creative workforce of Northern Australia and the type of talent and diverse art and culture they have to offer. This will encourage investors of both government and private sectors to intervene in the betterment of Northern Australia.
The policies developed for Northern Australia aim to provide proper infrastructure to the community where artists and creators can gather to showcase their work and develop and v rainstorm innovate ideas. Also, public places such as the Northern Territory Library effectively developed a policy to help improve the quality of life of creative by surveying that they needed and used the library for. This information was intended to be used to improve the library experience of the people while also making the library accessible for art and cultural activities such as exhibitions and performances. However, policies such as the Northern Territory Library Donations Policy lacks in the fundamental encouragement for others to come forth to donate important piece of artwork r manuscripts which they have help with them. This policy also does not address how others from various parts of the country or the world can donate if and when they wanted to
Caust, J. (2015). Cultural wars in an Australian context: Challenges in developing a national cultural policy. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 21(2), 168-182.
Daniel, R., Fleischmann, K. & Welters, R. (2016). Creativity in the ‘Torrid’ zone: policy, creative industries and the vision for Northern Australia. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 1-15.
Department of Arts and Museums. (2015). Shaping the future: Arts and culture in the northern territory. Retrieved from https://dtsc.nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/273164/shaping-the-future.pdf
Devlin, B., Disbray, S. & Devlin, N. (2017).History of bilingual education in the Northern Territory. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?id=IzRIDgAAQBAJ&dq=Arts+and+cultural+policies+of+northern+Australia+pdf+journal&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Dew, A., Barton, R., Gilroy, J., Ryall, L., Lincoln, M., Jensen, H., Flood, V., Taylor, K. & McCrae, K. (2019).Importance of land, family and culture for a good life: Remote Aboriginal people with disability and carers. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 1-22.
McShane, I. (2016). Productive nation?Museums, cultural policy and Australia’s productivity narrative.Museum & Society, 14(1), 131- 145.
Nocca, F. (2017). The role of cultural heritage in sustainable development: multidimensional indicators as decision-making tools. Sustainability, 9(10), 1-28.
Northern Territory Government. (2016). Vibrant NT. Retrieved from https://dtsc.nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/278963/vibrant-nt.pdf
Northern Territory Government.(2017). Alice Springs Town council arts and cultural policy 2017-2021. Retrieved from https://assets-astc.s3-ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/files/files/ASTC%20Arts%20and%20Cultural%20Policy%20WEB.pdf
Northern Territory Government.(n.d.).Northern territory library. Retrieved from https://dtsc.nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/267106/ntl_donation_policy.pdf
Northern Territory Government. (n.d.). Northern Territory Library. Retrieved from https://dtsc.nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/267104/Northern-Territory-Library-Strategic-Plan-2015-2018.pdf
Northern Territory. (2020). Arts and cultural policy. Retrieved from https://dtsc.nt.gov.au/arts-and-museums/arts-publications-policy-consultation/arts-and-cultural-policy#:~:text=Vibrant%20NT%2C%20the%20landmark%20strategic,economic%2C%20cultural%20and%20social%20development.&text=A%20Community%20Consultation%20and%20Policy%20Discussion%20paper%20was%20launched%20in%20October%202015.
Russell-Smith, J., Whitehead, P. & Cooke, P. (2009).Culture, ecology and economy of fire management in north Australian savannas.
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