Q.1. The nursing and midwifery board of Australia have a number of functions. Then roles and responsibilities of the NMBA focus around the professional development of nurses and midwives in the healthcare. The major functions include:
Q.2. The Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation (ANMF) is considered as the largest national union and professional nursing and midwifery organisation in Australia. It has a number of roles and responsibilities in the context of Australian nursing and midwifery staff. The ANMF was established in 1924 as the national union for nurses and midwives. It has a total of 230,000 nursing members as Australia’s largest professional and industrial nursing organisation (ACTU, n.d.).
Q.3. The registration standard continuing professional development applies to all the registered nurses, midwives and enrolled nurses in the healthcare setting (Bamford-Wade et al., 2020). The standard provide information regarding the minimum CPD hours for both the nurses and midwives in the healthcare. Continuing professional development is the strategy or process in which the enrolled nurses, registered nurses or the midwives improve and broaden their competence, expertise and knowledge. It is required for the development of both professional and personal qualities in the nurses throughout their professional practice (AHPRA, 2019). The registration standards, guidelines or codes are used as disciplinary proceedings as an evidence of appropriate conduct for the midwives and the nurses (Bamford-Wade et al., 2020). An enrolled nurse must comply for 20 hours of CPD for being eligible for the registration standard. Continuous professional development is a subject of greater efficiency and working capability of a nurse.
I will try to enroll myself for the registration standard of “continuous professional development” in order to attain minimum requirements for my professional development as an enrolled nurse. I will complete a minimum of 20 hours of CPD per registration period in order to gain competence and professional development. According to the AHPRA registration standards (AHPRA, 2019), the nurses and midwifes are provided with a total of five core registration standards that must be met by the registrants in order to be registered. Common registration standards by the AHPRA include the criminal history registration standard, English language skills registration standard, regency of practice, professional indemnity insurance and continuing professional development.
As an enrolled nurse I will focus on developing mu skills and capabilities to meet the requirements of these standards. The AHPRA set up certain profession specific registration standard which include standards for the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and nursing and midwifery practice (AHPRA, 2019). As an enrolled nurse I will gain competence in ethical nursing practice while complying with the standards of continuous professional development. I will register myself to the standards every year by completing the requirements of the CPD.
Q.4. According to the nursing and midwifery board AHPRA (2019), the enrolled are eligible of administering medicine to the patients if they have properly completed their medical education. In other words the enrolled nurse can administer the medication to the patients in absence of the registered nurse unless they have any kind of notation on their registration. The notation on the registration represent that the registered nurse have not completed their medical education properly. The notation is a term used to describe the inefficiency of the education qualification of the enrolled nurses in terms of unavailability of a board-approved qualification (Parker, 2020). It is expected from the enrolled nurses to not have kind of notation and they have completed proper EN medication administration education.
The enrolled nurse must have confidence and competence in administering medication to the patients. According to the standard 5 of enrolled nurse standards for practice NMBA (2019), the enrolled nurse must collaborate with the registered nurse in order to provide patient centered care to the patients. The enrolled nurses are expected to clarify the medical orders with the RN if they are unclear. The enrolled nurses are completely eligible for administering medicine if they are confident and aware about the practice. According to Parker (2020), competence is a concept developed through experience and practice.
This basically comes through education and practice. The enrolled nurses can administer intravenous medicines in the absence of the registered nurse only if they do not have any notation on their registration. Moreover, they have relevant educational qualifications for intra venous medicine or they have developed competence through practice. It is always effective to seek assistance from the registered nurse in case of confusion but the enrolled nurse is sufficient enough to administer medicine to the patients if they have required educational qualification without a notation (Magnusson et al., 2017).
Q.5. The primary healthcare program that operate in my community is the PHN Immunisation support program (NPS, 2020).
Q.6. The declaration of Alma-Ata presents global commitments for achieving health for everyone (Perry, 2018). It is based upon the principles of community participation and equity in policy making and health planning. The Alma-Ata represent the primary health care as the key to attain goal for health of all. The principles of primary healthcare are inter sectorial cooperation, accessibility and public participation (Perry, 2018). As a philosophical framework the primary health care is designed on the values of social justice, equity and solidarity (Abbas et al., 2018).
Q.7. Strengths of Australian Public health system
Weakness of Australian public health system
Q.9. Ryan is at increased risk of developing COPD for his condition. He has been suffering from Asthma already and inefficiency of his treatment plan indicate greater lung deterioration for the patient. An increased inflammation in the lungs can lead to the development of conditions such as COPD. According to Awoke et al., (2017), people suffering from Asthma are 12 times more likely to develop COPD in comparison to people who are healthy. People who smoke are more vulnerable to lung infections and deteriorations. Ryan has Asthma and he smoke cigarettes which make him vulnerable to COPD.
Q.10. Current health of Ryan can have severe impact over his mental health, physical health, social health and financial safety. Since Ryan has retired from his job and his treatment plan is ineffective so it can cause stress to Ryan. Moreover, he belong to the Aboriginal community of Australia which make him more vulnerable to mental health issues. According to Zambas and Wright (2016), people from the Aboriginal background are more vulnerable to stress and anxiety because of social and economic disparities by the government and the healthcare system. Ryan’s present health condition can have a negative impact over his physical health in the form of increased inactivity. People suffering from Asthma feel it difficult to walk and perform simple exercises which reduce their overall physical health (Zambas & Wright, 2016). Retirement, decreased physical activity and Indigenous background can impact social health of Ryan and it can also bring up financial issues for Ryan.
Health service 1: Aeromedical retrieval services: since Ryan has asthma so he can require emergency ambulatory services anytime. Aeromedical ambulatory services can hence be effective for Ryan.
Health service 2: health pathology for investigating the course and extent of lung infection and inflammation for Ryan.
Health service 3: Medicare health services can help Ryan with all the available government subsidies.
Q.12. Issues that can impact the delivery of care for Ryan include lack of accessibility and cultural difference. According to Ireland et al., (2017), one of the most common factor that reduce health outcomes of people living in remote location is lack of accessibility. Reduced healthcare access result in delayed diagnoses and it then lead to greater mortality and morbidity. Moreover, Ryan lives at his farm in a remote location which makes it difficult for him to access the health services whenever required. Another issue that can lead to reduced health outcomes is greater cultural differences. People from the Aboriginal background feel it difficult to converse with people of non-Aboriginal background which slow down their pace of treatment and recovery. Since, Ryan is from the Aboriginal background so it can be problematic for him to converse with the Non-Aboriginal physicians and nurses.
Q.13. Three common diseases that can impact an immigrant are:
Q.14. Two members of the interdisciplinary healthcare team involve the cardiologists and the home based nurse for Rita. Multidisciplinary teams enhance patient care and satisfaction in the healthcare by increasing the physical and psychological health of the patients (Ehlers et al., 2019). The patients in acute care due to conditions such as myocardial infraction require a cardiologist to monitor and stabilize the heartbeat of a person. Rita is highly concerned about her mobility, diet and general recovery so home based nursing services that help her with the diet, physical exercise and general recovery can be effective.
Q.15. Health service 1: Home based nursing services to assist Rita in simple activities ranging from physical activities to diet changes (Mendes et al., 2020).
Health service 2: Telehealth for bringing exercise experts at home
Health service 3: nutrition based diet services
Q.16. Every person has a right to follow their religious beliefs. Similarly, Rita has the right to follow the hot and cold food principles as per her religious beliefs. But, it is important for Rita to know the efficiencies and inefficiencies of the technique. Educating Rita about the correct technique of hot and cold food can be effective for her. It is important to make Rita feel independent and inclusive in her care. Practices such as icing at the site of muscle soreness after exercise can reduce the pain and swelling. Evidence based practice can build up confidence in Rita and it can provide positive healthcare results.
Q.17. Two health issues that have had an impact over the recent policy development include:
Q.18. Health inequalities can have a negative impact over the health and safety of the people. The health inequalities related to economic, political and social factors can impact both the funding and access to the healthcare. According to Guimarães, Lucas and Timms (2019), a number of people face health inequalities due to factors such as remoteness, lack of financial stability, faulty government policies and social exclusion. For example: the Aboriginal people of Australia are highly impacted by social, cultural, economic and environmental disparities that have resulted in increased health gap among the Aboriginal and the Non-Aboriginal people of Australia.
Healthcare access is one of the most common factor that results in healthcare disparities because the people living in remote locations cannot access services for timely diagnosis. Economic factors such as lack of financial stability can impact the people to attain expensive healthcare. Moreover, social factors such as culture and religion offer greater healthcare inequality. For example: the LGBT family in Australia is differentiated on the basis of culture that lead to health inequalities (Guimarães, Lucas & Timms, 2019).
Q.19. Complementary therapies that focus on emotional development of a person are highly effective non-western wellness therapies. The principle of wellness suggest a physician to impart complete physical, mental, emotional and spiritual wellbeing.
Q.20. Strategies that can be followed by me as an enrolled nurse for implementing contemporary health care include:
Q.21. One of the most effective local health promotion strategy is the Ottawa Charter for health promotion (Arnold & Boggs, 2019). It contain a total of 5 strategies that are essential for building healthy public policy, supportive environment, strengthened community action, developed personal skills and reoriented health services.
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