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Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA)

Q.1. The nursing and midwifery board of Australia have a number of functions. Then roles and responsibilities of the NMBA focus around the professional development of nurses and midwives in the healthcare. The major functions include:

  • The NMBA develops a number of codes, guidelines and standards for the enrolled nurses, registered nurses and midwifes (NMBA, 2019). These standards, codes and guidelines provide a framework to the healthcare staff to perform ethically and reasonably in the healthcare setting.
  • The NMBA is involved in handling disciplinary hearings, investigations, notifications and complaints (NMBA, 2019). These complaints are basically a result of breaches to the standard of practice developed for the nurse and midwifes. Inability of the nurse to follow these standards and codes can hamper the professional practice of the nurse and this can indeed be ineffective for their professional development.
  • The NMBA is also involved in assessing the nursing and midwifery practitioners from overseas that wish to practice in Australia. A number of nurses and midwifes relocate to Australia and want to continue their practice. This require acknowledgement and assessment from the NMBA.
  • The NMBA have a major function in approving accreditation standards and multiple accredited courses of study.

Q.2. The Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation (ANMF) is considered as the largest national union and professional nursing and midwifery organisation in Australia. It has a number of roles and responsibilities in the context of Australian nursing and midwifery staff. The ANMF was established in 1924 as the national union for nurses and midwives. It has a total of 230,000 nursing members as Australia’s largest professional and industrial nursing organisation (ACTU, n.d.).

  • Main function of the ANMF is to enhance the pay and working conditions for the nurses and healthcare staff. ANMF can assist the nurses in starting of their nursing career by informing them about the pay rates, education required and career development (ACTU, n.d.).
  • The students enrolled through the ANMF can access proper study material and educational resources. They stay informed about the changes that are introduced in the health and nursing department. They help the students to learn about their rights at work.
  • The ANMF help the enrolled students to develop competence and standards in the healthcare department. It promote direct consultation with the state and federal government in order to address the nursing and healthcare based issues. It is highly involved in the development of position statements, guidelines and policies for nursing practice (ACTU, n.d.).
  • The ANMF is a member of valuable services which functions to resolve workplace disputes and provide legal representation for the disputes that cannot be worked out at the workplace (ANMF, 2014). It is involved in negotiating awards and different workplace agreements with the employees. The organisation is inclined toward educational services, library services and providing information on workplace issues.

Q.3. The registration standard continuing professional development applies to all the registered nurses, midwives and enrolled nurses in the healthcare setting (Bamford-Wade et al., 2020). The standard provide information regarding the minimum CPD hours for both the nurses and midwives in the healthcare. Continuing professional development is the strategy or process in which the enrolled nurses, registered nurses or the midwives improve and broaden their competence, expertise and knowledge. It is required for the development of both professional and personal qualities in the nurses throughout their professional practice (AHPRA, 2019). The registration standards, guidelines or codes are used as disciplinary proceedings as an evidence of appropriate conduct for the midwives and the nurses (Bamford-Wade et al., 2020). An enrolled nurse must comply for 20 hours of CPD for being eligible for the registration standard. Continuous professional development is a subject of greater efficiency and working capability of a nurse.

I will try to enroll myself for the registration standard of “continuous professional development” in order to attain minimum requirements for my professional development as an enrolled nurse. I will complete a minimum of 20 hours of CPD per registration period in order to gain competence and professional development. According to the AHPRA registration standards (AHPRA, 2019), the nurses and midwifes are provided with a total of five core registration standards that must be met by the registrants in order to be registered. Common registration standards by the AHPRA include the criminal history registration standard, English language skills registration standard, regency of practice, professional indemnity insurance and continuing professional development.

As an enrolled nurse I will focus on developing mu skills and capabilities to meet the requirements of these standards. The AHPRA set up certain profession specific registration standard which include standards for the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and nursing and midwifery practice (AHPRA, 2019). As an enrolled nurse I will gain competence in ethical nursing practice while complying with the standards of continuous professional development. I will register myself to the standards every year by completing the requirements of the CPD.

Q.4. According to the nursing and midwifery board AHPRA (2019), the enrolled are eligible of administering medicine to the patients if they have properly completed their medical education. In other words the enrolled nurse can administer the medication to the patients in absence of the registered nurse unless they have any kind of notation on their registration. The notation on the registration represent that the registered nurse have not completed their medical education properly. The notation is a term used to describe the inefficiency of the education qualification of the enrolled nurses in terms of unavailability of a board-approved qualification (Parker, 2020). It is expected from the enrolled nurses to not have kind of notation and they have completed proper EN medication administration education.

The enrolled nurse must have confidence and competence in administering medication to the patients. According to the standard 5 of enrolled nurse standards for practice NMBA (2019), the enrolled nurse must collaborate with the registered nurse in order to provide patient centered care to the patients. The enrolled nurses are expected to clarify the medical orders with the RN if they are unclear. The enrolled nurses are completely eligible for administering medicine if they are confident and aware about the practice. According to Parker (2020), competence is a concept developed through experience and practice.

This basically comes through education and practice. The enrolled nurses can administer intravenous medicines in the absence of the registered nurse only if they do not have any notation on their registration. Moreover, they have relevant educational qualifications for intra venous medicine or they have developed competence through practice. It is always effective to seek assistance from the registered nurse in case of confusion but the enrolled nurse is sufficient enough to administer medicine to the patients if they have required educational qualification without a notation (Magnusson et al., 2017).

Q.5. The primary healthcare program that operate in my community is the PHN Immunisation support program (NPS, 2020).

  • Purpose: purpose of the program is to support the PHNs by meeting their goals of national immunization program. Moreover, it is focused on stronger partnership and increased efficiency of immunization.
  • Services provided: The program provide a range of services in order to boost the efficiency of immunization services. It deliver a number of coordinated approach for supporting the immunization providers. It deliver immunization to communities and patients (NPS, 2020).
  • Member of the interdisciplinary team: The interdisciplinary team include the Immunisation providers such as the nurse immunisers, GPs, medical services, pharmacies, local councils, Aboriginal medical services and community health clinics.

Q.6. The declaration of Alma-Ata presents global commitments for achieving health for everyone (Perry, 2018). It is based upon the principles of community participation and equity in policy making and health planning. The Alma-Ata represent the primary health care as the key to attain goal for health of all. The principles of primary healthcare are inter sectorial cooperation, accessibility and public participation (Perry, 2018). As a philosophical framework the primary health care is designed on the values of social justice, equity and solidarity (Abbas et al., 2018).

Q.7. Strengths of Australian Public health system

  • Government assistance in care
  • Increased health infrastructure and taxation
  • Increased affordability and accessibility of healthcare (Hamilton et al., 2019)

Weakness of Australian public health system

  • Lack of ownership on health
  • Limitation of the free medicine program (Hamilton et al., 2019)
  • Poor services to the patients

Case Study 1: Ryan

Q.9. Ryan is at increased risk of developing COPD for his condition. He has been suffering from Asthma already and inefficiency of his treatment plan indicate greater lung deterioration for the patient. An increased inflammation in the lungs can lead to the development of conditions such as COPD. According to Awoke et al., (2017), people suffering from Asthma are 12 times more likely to develop COPD in comparison to people who are healthy. People who smoke are more vulnerable to lung infections and deteriorations. Ryan has Asthma and he smoke cigarettes which make him vulnerable to COPD.

Q.10. Current health of Ryan can have severe impact over his mental health, physical health, social health and financial safety. Since Ryan has retired from his job and his treatment plan is ineffective so it can cause stress to Ryan. Moreover, he belong to the Aboriginal community of Australia which make him more vulnerable to mental health issues. According to Zambas and Wright (2016), people from the Aboriginal background are more vulnerable to stress and anxiety because of social and economic disparities by the government and the healthcare system. Ryan’s present health condition can have a negative impact over his physical health in the form of increased inactivity. People suffering from Asthma feel it difficult to walk and perform simple exercises which reduce their overall physical health (Zambas & Wright, 2016). Retirement, decreased physical activity and Indigenous background can impact social health of Ryan and it can also bring up financial issues for Ryan.

Q.11.

Health service 1: Aeromedical retrieval services: since Ryan has asthma so he can require emergency ambulatory services anytime. Aeromedical ambulatory services can hence be effective for Ryan.

  • Organisation that run the health service: NSW Ambulance
  • Target audience: patients that require emergency care
  • Interdisciplinary healthcare team involved: the interdisciplinary team involve a number of nurses who are specialized in emergency treatment, physicians, pilots for helicopters and helicopter base staff (NSW Government, 2014)

Health service 2: health pathology for investigating the course and extent of lung infection and inflammation for Ryan.

  • Organisation that run the health service: NSW health
  • Target audience: patients that require public pathology, forensic and analytical science services across NSW
  • Interdisciplinary healthcare team involved: medically trained clinicians, pathologists that work in modern laboratories, networks of local health agencies (NSW Government, 2013).

Health service 3: Medicare health services can help Ryan with all the available government subsidies.

  • Organisation that run the health service: Medicare
  • Target audience: patients that require financial and medical support through low-cost medical access.
  • Interdisciplinary healthcare team involved: It involve the nurses, allied health workers, medical specialists and primary care services that are delivered by the general practitioners.

Q.12. Issues that can impact the delivery of care for Ryan include lack of accessibility and cultural difference. According to Ireland et al., (2017), one of the most common factor that reduce health outcomes of people living in remote location is lack of accessibility. Reduced healthcare access result in delayed diagnoses and it then lead to greater mortality and morbidity. Moreover, Ryan lives at his farm in a remote location which makes it difficult for him to access the health services whenever required. Another issue that can lead to reduced health outcomes is greater cultural differences. People from the Aboriginal background feel it difficult to converse with people of non-Aboriginal background which slow down their pace of treatment and recovery. Since, Ryan is from the Aboriginal background so it can be problematic for him to converse with the Non-Aboriginal physicians and nurses.

Q.13. Three common diseases that can impact an immigrant are:

  1. Hypertension: migration or relocation can often impact the normal routine of a person. It can increase the psychological burden on an individual that ultimately contribute to development of hypertension and depression. Migrants often feel difficulty in adjusting to new surroundings and atmosphere. Changes in the environmental conditions can lead to physical, social, emotional and environmental stress which can contribute to the development of hypertension and then depression (Bagby et al., 2019).
  2. Malnourishment: A number of people feel it difficult to adjust to different eating practices in different countries. A vegetarian person can easily suffer from malnourishment if he/she relocates to a meat eating country. Malnourishment can then bring up a number of health conditions which ranges from anemia in adults to kwashiorkor in children (Bagby et al., 2019).
  3. Diabetes: diabetes is another common condition that impact the immigrants of a country. Change in life style and change in food habits often bring up hormonal imbalance and this can bring up conditions such as diabetes and insulin resistance.

Case Study 2: Rita

Q.14. Two members of the interdisciplinary healthcare team involve the cardiologists and the home based nurse for Rita. Multidisciplinary teams enhance patient care and satisfaction in the healthcare by increasing the physical and psychological health of the patients (Ehlers et al., 2019). The patients in acute care due to conditions such as myocardial infraction require a cardiologist to monitor and stabilize the heartbeat of a person. Rita is highly concerned about her mobility, diet and general recovery so home based nursing services that help her with the diet, physical exercise and general recovery can be effective.

Q.15. Health service 1: Home based nursing services to assist Rita in simple activities ranging from physical activities to diet changes (Mendes et al., 2020).

  • Organisation that run the health service: Vital home health
  • Target audience: patients that want assistance with ADL’s at home
  • Interdisciplinary healthcare team involved: The interdisciplinary healthcare team involve highly skilled and trained nurses that provide effective physical, emotional, spiritual and social help to the patients (Mendes et al., 2020).

Health service 2: Telehealth for bringing exercise experts at home

  • Organisation that run the health service: Telehealth
  • Target audience: patients that require digital information and communication technologies for effective exercising (Kolltveit et al., 2018).
  • Interdisciplinary healthcare team involved: exercise experts, digital experts and communication professionals.

Health service 3: nutrition based diet services

  • Organisation that run the health service: Nutrition Australia
  • Target audience: patients that require assistance with diet and nutrition
  • Interdisciplinary healthcare team involved: dieticians, nutrition specialists, weight management experts and diet planners (Kolltveit et al., 2018).

Q.16. Every person has a right to follow their religious beliefs. Similarly, Rita has the right to follow the hot and cold food principles as per her religious beliefs. But, it is important for Rita to know the efficiencies and inefficiencies of the technique. Educating Rita about the correct technique of hot and cold food can be effective for her. It is important to make Rita feel independent and inclusive in her care. Practices such as icing at the site of muscle soreness after exercise can reduce the pain and swelling. Evidence based practice can build up confidence in Rita and it can provide positive healthcare results. 

Q.17. Two health issues that have had an impact over the recent policy development include:

  1. Coronavirus pandemic: Coronavirus is a global healthcare burden and this have had an impact over every person on the globe. The condition have slowed down international economy and it have impacted the policy development.
  2. Increased mental health issues: global mental health concerns have had a rapid increase lately and this have impacted the policy development

Q.18. Health inequalities can have a negative impact over the health and safety of the people. The health inequalities related to economic, political and social factors can impact both the funding and access to the healthcare. According to Guimarães, Lucas and Timms (2019), a number of people face health inequalities due to factors such as remoteness, lack of financial stability, faulty government policies and social exclusion. For example: the Aboriginal people of Australia are highly impacted by social, cultural, economic and environmental disparities that have resulted in increased health gap among the Aboriginal and the Non-Aboriginal people of Australia.

Healthcare access is one of the most common factor that results in healthcare disparities because the people living in remote locations cannot access services for timely diagnosis. Economic factors such as lack of financial stability can impact the people to attain expensive healthcare. Moreover, social factors such as culture and religion offer greater healthcare inequality. For example: the LGBT family in Australia is differentiated on the basis of culture that lead to health inequalities (Guimarães, Lucas & Timms, 2019).

Q.19. Complementary therapies that focus on emotional development of a person are highly effective non-western wellness therapies. The principle of wellness suggest a physician to impart complete physical, mental, emotional and spiritual wellbeing.

Q.20. Strategies that can be followed by me as an enrolled nurse for implementing contemporary health care include:

  • Holistic and patient centered care: care while keeping patient at the center can be effective for the patient’s overall wellbeing (Gramlich et al., 2017).
  • Culture safety: providing care irrespective of the culture can be effective for the patient and it can help in the implementation of contemporary health care.

Q.21. One of the most effective local health promotion strategy is the Ottawa Charter for health promotion (Arnold & Boggs, 2019). It contain a total of 5 strategies that are essential for building healthy public policy, supportive environment, strengthened community action, developed personal skills and reoriented health services.

  • Organisation that run the health service: VicHealth
  • Target audience: communities that lack health awareness and stability
  • Interdisciplinary healthcare team involved: the interdisciplinary team involved in the Ottawa charter for health promotion are officials for developing the public policy, investigators for investigating area of interest, supportive authorities, trainers for enhancing personal skills and reorienting the health services.

Reference for Australian Healthcare System

Abbasi, M., Majdzadeh, R., Zali, A., Karimi, A., & Akrami, F. (2018). The evolution of public health ethics frameworks: systematic review of moral values and norms in public health policy. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy21(3), 387-402

ACTU. (n.d.). Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation. Retrieved from http://worksite.actu.org.au/sponsors/australian-nursing-federation/

AHPRA. (2019). Fact sheet: Enrolled nurse and medicine administration. Retreieved from https://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/codes-guidelines-statements/faq/enrolled-nurses-and-medicine-administration.aspx

AHPRA. (2019). Registration standard. Retrieved from https://www.ahpra.gov.au/Registration/Registration-Standards.aspx

ANMF. (2014). About the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation. Retrieved from http://anmf.org.au/pages/about-the-anmf

Arnold, E. C., & Boggs, K. U. (2019). Interpersonal Relationships E-Book: Professional Communication Skills for Nurses. U.S.A: Elsevier Health Sciences

Awoke, M. A., Negin, J., Moller, J., Farell, P., Yawson, A. E., Biritwum, R. B., & Kowal, P. (2017). Predictors of public and private healthcare utilization and associated health system responsiveness among older adults in Ghana. Global health action10(1), 1301723

Bagby, S. P., Martin, D., Chung, S. T., & Rajapakse, N. (2019). From the outside in: Biological mechanisms linking social and environmental exposures to chronic disease and to health disparities. American journal of public health109(S1), S56-S63

Bamford-Wade, A., Lavender, S., Massey, D., Anderson, V., Clayton, S., & Johnston, A. (2020). A case study-Implementing a registered nurse professional recognition program across a Queensland hospital and health service. Nurse Education in Practice42, 102689.

Ehlers, S. L., Davis, K., Bluethmann, S. M., Quintiliani, L. M., Kendall, J., Ratwani, R. M., ... & Graves, K. D. (2019). Screening for psychosocial distress among patients with cancer: implications for clinical practice, healthcare policy, and dissemination to enhance cancer survivorship. Translational behavioral medicine9(2), 282-291

Gramlich, L. M., Sheppard, C. E., Wasylak, T., Gilmour, L. E., Ljungqvist, O., Basualdo-Hammond, C., & Nelson, G. (2017). Implementation of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery: a strategy to transform surgical care across a health system. Implementation Science12(1), 1-17

Guimarães, T., Lucas, K., & Timms, P. (2019). Understanding how low-income communities gain access to healthcare services: A qualitative study in São Paulo, Brazil. Journal of Transport & Health15, 100658

Hamilton, M. J., McEniery, J. A., Osborne, J. M., & Coulthard, M. G. (2019). Implementation and strength of root cause analysis recommendations following serious adverse events involving paediatric patients in the Queensland public health system between 2012 and 2014. Journal of paediatrics and child health55(9), 1070-1076

Ireland, M. J., March, S., Crawford-Williams, F., Cassimatis, M., Aitken, J. F., Hyde, M. K., ... & Dunn, J. (2017). A systematic review of geographical differences in management and outcomes for colorectal cancer in Australia. BMC cancer17(1), 95.

Kolltveit, B. C. H., Thorne, S., Graue, M., Gjengedal, E., Iversen, M. M., & Kirkevold, M. (2018). Telemedicine follow‐up facilitates more comprehensive diabetes foot ulcer care: A qualitative study in home‐based and specialist health care. Journal of clinical nursing27(5-6), e1134-e1145

Magnusson, C., Allan, H., Horton, K., Johnson, M., Evans, K., & Ball, E. (2017). An analysis of delegation styles among newly qualified nurses. Nursing Standard31(25).

Mendes, R., Nunes Silva, M., Santos Silva, C., Marques, A., Godinho, C., Tomás, R., ... & Teixeira, P. J. (2020). Physical Activity Promotion Tools in the Portuguese Primary Health Care: An Implementation Research. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health17(3), 815.

Mohammed, H. (2019). Health Care System Financing and Accessibility in the United States vs. Australia. Health Care Current Reviews. doi10, 2375-4273.

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NMBA. (2019). Functions of the board. Retrieved from nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/about.aspx

NPS Medicine wise. (2020). PHN Immunisation support program. Retrieved from https://www.nps.org.au/phnisp

NSW Government. (2013). Health organisation. Retrieved from https://www.health.nsw.gov.au/about/nswhealth/Pages/other_organisations.aspx.

NSW Government. (2014). Strategic review: Aeromedical (rotary wing) retrieval services. Retrieved from https://www.health.nsw.gov.au/about/nswhealth/Pages/new_helicopter_network.aspx

Parker, C. J. (2020). A Correlational Study of Massage Therapy Education and Standardized Examination Scores (Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University).

Perry, H. B. (2018). An extension of the Alma-Ata vision for primary health care in light of twenty-first century evidence and realities. Gates open research2.

Zambas, S. I., & Wright, J. (2016). Impact of colonialism on Māori and Aboriginal healthcare access: a discussion paper. Contemporary nurse52(4), 398-409

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Healthcare Assignment Help

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