a). The three banks in Australia that I have selected are, commonwealth bank of Australia, Westpac banking corporation and National Australia bank. The investors lend money to government of Australia for a set of periods of time and the interest rate if pre-determined. If the government issue bonds then these bonds makes regular payment in the form of interest according to the life of bonds and the initial investment has to repay, the initial investment is also known as principle, at the expiration time of bond at their maturity date.
The commonwealth bank of Australia issued investment growth bond. It is also known insurance bond. It provides a tax effective way that helps in investing got future and it is a very flexible bond that is enough to meet the wide range of demands. This bond combines the characteristics of a life insurance policy and managed fund. There are more added benefits of this bond that provider gives extra 30 per cent on any kind of earnings in this particular bond. There are different kinds of investment options such as shares, fixed interest, cash and property. This bond is very suitable for fulfilling all kinds of demand and different conditions. This bond is very suitable for the one who have high earnings that are looking for maximising the efficiencies of tax, it is suitable for the families who want save money for their young children with the help of a child advancement policy, it is also suitable for the ones who are looking for super certainty options in the field of real estate and distribution of wealth by no tax reporting or little tax reporting.
Westpac banking corporation commonly known as Westpac. It is an Australian bank and it provides financial services and the headquarter is in Sydney, Australia. It was founded in the year 1817 with the name of bank of New south Wales. In 1982, the bank was acquired by the Commercial bank of Australia. Now, it is one of the biggest banks in Australia. It is first bank of Australia that issues a climatic bond to retail investors of Japan. This special bond is also known as Uridashi bond market. It supports the funding of bank in for defining the climatic solutions and changing the climate solutions. The bank issues Australian $ 117.3 million which is issued for the 5 years. The bind was issued through a quasi-public. This bind was also supported by the retail investors of japan. This bond was the fourth bind issues by Westpac and the target of the bank is to facilitate till Australia $ 3 bn of issuance of green bond and it should be done by the year 2020 as this bond was issued in the year 2022. It is similar to other green bonds, the bonds issued by the Westpac is a “use of proceeds”. Bond. The meaning of this bond is that the funds are used to refinance or finance the sustainable projects.
National Australian bank is one of the largest banks of Australia. It is biggest in terms of capitalization, in terms of earning and in terms of customers. It is 52nd largest bank in the world in terms of total assets, it is determined in 2019. The bank deal in different products like business banking, wholesale banking, insurance, wealth management, consumer banking and insurance. The revenue generated by the bank is Australian $ 19. 101 billion as 2018, the net income of the bank is Australian dollar 5.554 bn updated in 2018 and the total assets are Australian dollar 806.51 billion as of 2018. The national Australian bank issues coupon bonds, the form of issue is documentary bearer bond, the placement method is open subscription, the type of placement is public, the par amount or the integral multiple is 1000 Australian Dollar. The minimum settlement amount is Australian $2000, the nominal value of international bonds is Australian dollar 1000, the amount of outstanding principal is 0 Australian dollar. The total amounts of the bonds are 125,000,000 Australian bonds. The redemption price is 100 percent. The current rate of coupon is 4.75 percent.
b). Capital market is where financial securities are traded among the institutions and the individuals. These autonomous institutions sell their securities in the capital market in private and public areas just to raise funds. The capital market is the combination of secondary market and primary market. Stock market and bond market are the part of capital market. Almost all the companies raise funds from the capital market to do the innovations in the market. There are five types, issue of bonds, issue of preferred stock, sell common stock, borrowings, preference shareholders, members got the voting rights, crowd funding, and many more. The suitable method to raise fund is crowd funding. It is becoming very popular for the businesses and for the individuals as well. the founders who launch crowd funding might think about these questions such as, is the crowd funding worth it, how tough will it be, and what are the correct merits and demerits of the crowd funding. Here is the list of pros and cons of crowd funding. These are;
Pros of crowdfunding:
Cons of crowdfunding:
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