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Due to the rapid technological advancement around the world, the most common and important sources of sharing information is through the use of internet. With the advent of the internet and latest technological advancement everything is now available at the fingertips of humans. Due to this change, businesses are finding it difficult to survive in the dynamic market. Thus, it is important for the companies to drive and adapt to the constant change. Organizational change management helps to the potential negative impacts of the structural changes in a business. This change management considers both the micro and the macro levels of change implementation.
Table of Contents
Overview of change and change management
Possible barriers to change.
Change model alternatives.
Change model recommendation.
The invention of internet to the world has changed the face of sharing information and communication. From having access to all the latest news of the world and staying connected with the family, it is all possible with the help of this internet. Internet has become a part of life for all generations, with computers, tablets or irreplaceable mobile. The traditional print media industry and the newspaper industry is largely affected by this technological development. According to Jayatilleke and Lai 2018, one can fall in love online, make new friends, and attend parties in other part of the world-all without leaving the comfort of our armchair.
The invention of digital media has given rise to many challenges for the print newspapers over the years, but companies have always tried to adapt to the changing demands. The internet has proved to be threating to the traditional newspaper industry. Faced with such challenges, newspaper companies are compelled to abandon their traditional methods and adapt a more innovative approach. Presently the newspaper industry is dwindling all over the world. Major changes in a mature industry can offer the opportunity to create breakthrough innovations and build a strong competitive advantage or have life-threatening impact.
Internet has undoubtedly been the major economic innovation of the last two decades (Jayatilleke and Lai 2018). The print media and the newspaper industry is facing serious decline in its growth due to the technological advancement and thus are compelled to adapt to this changing needs and demands of the industry. Same is the case with Philippine Daily Bugle. This newspaper company from Philippine is facing has been largely impacted due to the introduction of technology in the early 90’s. People presently do not prefer buying newspaper regularly, as a variety of news is now available online and people are able to access that news information from any part of the world and at any point of time just and from comfort of their homes. Thus, the company us continuously trying to adapt to the industrial change.
Change management can simple be defined as a process of accepting and introducing the srequired change in the organization. This change management consist of all the methods that are implemented for redirecting the business process, allocating budgets, utilization of resources and implementing alternate modes of operation bring a change to a company (Cameron and Green 2019). Change management is a strategic approach for systematically applying the knowledge, tools and resources in order to counter the change prevailing in the industry. The present business industry is driving change at an unprecedented level. With the technological change pace rapidly increasing, it is essential for organizations to adapt to transitions of new processes and procedures on a regular basis (Cameron and Green 2019). Various internal and external factors are responsible for change in an organization. Some of the drivers or factors due to which an organization may be compelled introduce change in their company are the continuous evolution of technology, internal reviews of processes, response to crisis and crisis management, changes in customer demand, pressure to survive the competition, mergers and acquisitions, and organizational restructuring (Voet et.al 2015).
Management of change is basically application of all the approaches and processes in order to prepare, support, and help employees, teams, and organizations in making organizational change (McManners 2016). However, while making and introducing this organizational change the companies counter some challenges or resistance from many sources which makes the change process difficult. These barriers cause hindrances in implementation of effective change management. In order to build an effective strategy for organisational change, those organizations must evaluate the types of barriers the organization at times face (McManners 2016). Some of the barriers to change and change management can be outlined as follows:
Similarly, the Philippine Daily Bugle, while introducing change in their business operations will have to face some of these barriers to change. One of the barriers to change that this newspaper company had to experience was the resistance to changing their styles of working from some of its employees. Some of the company’s most senior employees, like one of the company’s editor-in-chief of the company remained slave to the traditional newspaper process. The traditional operation process of newspapers include that the news, and other content of the paper are delivered in around 5pm every day in order to further process it, consolidate it and align it on the newspaper page and which is them printed in the printing press. The new technological change included that the traditional editorial and newspaper process should accommodate a 24 hour news cycle. Such a organizational shift was not accepted by many employees like the editor-in-chief, and they would follow the traditional pattern of arriving at 5pm and making heavy changes to the editorial decisions made earlier, which ultimately caused great delay in the process. Such micro-management style of senior employees created a barrier in effectively implementing the change.
By definition change management is actually described as alterations to business processes that the organizations and the management team implement for organizational change (Haye 2018). This change is an ever-evolving process impacting everyone. Thus, the organizations may use the different change models in single or in combination as per their requirement to introduce change. Some of the change models that can be used in implementation of change in the Philippine Daily Bugle Company is as follows:
Kurt Lewin in the late 1930’s introduced the Action Research Model (ARM) (Molineux 2018). This approach involves a researcher, who functioning as a social change expert. This expert assists its client by researching and supporting them to introduce positive, sustainable change in their organizations. This model of change enables leaders and employees to collaborate and cooperate thus improving their relationship and communication. According to Lewin, change is implemented effectively when the researcher also called as OD Professional at times and the businesses are able to collaborate for identifying needs and implementing solutions (Molineux 2018). This model is problem centric, client centric, and action oriented (Molineux 2018). It involves the client system and change agent to conduct a diagnostic, problem-finding, and problem-solving process. Both by collective efforts identify the specific problems, important causes, and assist in developing action plans for countering the issues realistically and practically.
This Prosci Adkar Model was created by Jeffrey Hiatt founder of Prosci (Quyen 2019). This is a goal-oriented change management model that provides guidance for individual and organizational change. This Prosci Adkar Model is an approach which is people-focused for change management. This provides for facilitating change at an individual level since change is often more about individual’s reaction to change (Quyen 2019). This word Adkar is actually an acronym and represents the five outcomes that people need to achieve for lasting and sustaining change where A stands for awareness of the need and importance for change, D stands for desire to support change, K represents having knowledge of how change can be achieved, A stands for ability for demonstrating skills and behaviours and R represents reinforcement for maintaining the change (Quyen 2019). The ADKAR Model is an effective tool for outlining the goals and required outcomes of successful change, and planning for change management activities. It also equips the manager to facilitate change, and support their employees throughout the process of change.
From the above explained models, the effective model which can be used for the Philippine Daily Bugle Company to introduce change and implement change management is the Prosci Adkar model. The Prosci Adkar model is appropriate for the given company, as this model assist in facilitating change in an organization at an individual level which is very essential for the growth of an organization. The employees or the workforce are the most important element of a company and these are the people responsible for the growth and productivity of the organization. Accordingly, an organizational shift or change directly dependent upon its employees for successful implementation. Thus, it is important for the employees have a clear understanding of the changes which are occurring, reasons of changes, and these changes affect the employees personally. This model thus assist, individual’s change of process through clearly defined stages that help them in understanding and accepting the changes. Similarly, for the Philippine Daily Bugle Company this model can prove to be an appropriate model, as it will address the problem of enabling change at every employee level. This is important because, as seen above one of the major barriers of change that this organization faces is the resistance or ineffective shift among the employees. Many of the senior employees of the company still follow the traditional working style, which can put the company’s productivity at risk. Thus, it is important for these employees to accept the required organizational change and work accordingly to maximize their and companies’ performance.
The implementation plan for this change management process of the Philippine Daily Bugle Company for introduction of change will consists of the following few steps:
One step in implementing the change process is by developing and implementing the strategies to counter the resistance to change. Communication is an important strategy that helps in effectively communicating to the individuals of the desired outcomes from change implementation (Giussi et.al. 2017). This communication builds trust relationships between the management and the employee, who perform better when they are well aware of their goals. Individual or employee involvement and engagement is also essential for effective change management. By encouraging feedbacks from the employees it helps the management to take effective decisions and the employees also feel valued and are motivated to work towards the change (Giussi et.al. 2017). Another important strategy is providing learning and stress management assistance to the players of this change (Giussi et.al. 2017). When a change is introduced, all individuals may not possess the necessary skills and competency to work for that change which may also lead to development of stress. Thus, it is essential to provide adequate training and learning to individuals for the change being introduced and also for managing stress due to the organizational shift. Negotiation also plays a role in this strategy of change, where it aims to create a win-win situation for both the parties the management and the employees, for effectively implementing change (Giussi et.al. 2017).
Change is implemented by planning change, setting goals, targets, timelines and resource limits. Executing interventions timelines at defined timelines and at individual and organizational level is important step (Waddock 2020). Some interventions with specific timelines can be given as follows:
Step 1- building a team for change and creation of a vision for the team to achieve
Step 2- motivating the change and communicating the vision and the desired outcomes
Step 3- Removing the obstacles and countering the barriers to change. At this stage this company will so develop the political support for its newspaper.
Step 4- Managing the transition or organizational shift by implementing improved processes, providing the necessary training to employees like editors, designer, and other staff. The company will also make any organizational structural changes if required.
Step 5- sustaining the momentum of change and allowing it to mature. Integrating the change so that it is absorbed and implemented at all levels is also essential at this stage.
Steps / Time
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Galli, B.J. 2018. Change management models: A comparative analysis and concerns. Journal of Engineering Management Review, 46(3), 124-132.
Giussi, M. et.al. 2017. Change Management Strategies: Transforming a Difficult Implementation into a Successful One. Journal of Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 245, 813-817.
Haye, J. 2018. The theory and practice of Change management. London: Palgrave
Jayatilleke, S. and Lai, R. 2018. A systematic review of requirements change management. Journal of Information and Software Technology, 93, 163-185.
McManners, P. 2016. The action research case study approach: a methodology for complex challenges such as sustainability in aviation. Action Research Journal, 14(2), 201-216
Molineux, J. 2018. Using action research for change in organizations: processes, reflections and outcomes. Journal of Work-Applied Management, 10(1), 234-241.
Quyen, W. 2019. Leading change with ADKAR. Journal of Nursing Management, 50(4), 28-35.
Waddock, S. 2020. Thinking transformational system change. Journal of Change Management, 3(1), 189-201.
Voet, J.V. et.al 2015. Implementing Change in Public Organizations: The relationship between leadership and affective commitment to change in a public sector context. Jouirnal of Public Management Review, 18(6), 842-865.
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