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  • Subject Name : Building and Construction

Building Information Modeling

A survey was conducted in two types of real estate companies. The first type was using Building information modeling (BIM) software, which is based on a virtual 3D model and is very effective for project life cycle management. The other company was using the traditional method of designing with the help of CAD systems.

The purpose of this survey was to analyse the traditional and BIM model of designing and comparing the effectiveness of the different working methods. It was also done to know the barriers confronted by the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. These industry were criticised for using the old technology and old business models. Computer aided design (CAD) is a form of computer aided modulation which is used by the architects, engineers and constructors to design and view the models in two or three dimension, whereas the newer computerised modeling system, building information modeling (BIM) is able to create six dimensional models. Thus, BIM can increase the efficiency and productivity of an architecture, engineering and construction industry.

A questionnaire was prepared for the interview of the construction project manager of both the real estate companies with different working methods.

S.No.

Survey Questions

Response Of Construction Project Manager Of Company Using Traditional Designs

Response Of Construction Project Manager Of Company Using BIM System

1.

Which designing tool is used by your industry?

Computer-Aided Design (CAD) System

Building Information Modeling (BIM)

2.

What is the tenure of using this designing tool?

From last 10 years

From last 1 year

3.

Which designing tool was used earlier by your industry?

Each specialist worked on different industry drawings (prepared on trace papers)

Computer-Aided Design (CAD) system

4.

Will you recommend the current designing tool used by your industry to others?

Yes, but only to the small and medium sized industry

Yes

5.

Are you satisfied with the working method?

No

Yes

6.

What are the advantages of the designing tool used by your industry?

Cheap cost,

Used by many experts in designing since last many years,

There are legal regulations in the case when conflict arises unlike lack of legal regulations for building information modeling(BIM)

This helps to give a visual simulation of a project through digital prototype of a building prior to construction,

Very easy and quick project updating,

Fully integrate all the information for better coordination,

Positively affects clash detection, bill of quantities and cost estimations, improves the quality of life(QOL) of construction stakeholders.

7.

What are the disadvantages of the designing tool used by your industry?

Coordination problems arise very frequently when the information is incorrectly understood by the project leader managers,

Very high implementation cost, the both hardware and software costs are very high making it very difficult for the small and medium offices,

Experienced designers are required for the practice of BIM based design,

BIM is profitable only for large projects

8.

Are you thinking of changing the working method used by your industry?

Yes and instead adopting Building Information Modeling

No

9.

What is the main motivation behind changing the model?

Coordination problem faced in the traditional design,

By implementing BIM can simplify many tasks and can save on time and money,

To make the system more flexible, efficient, effective and innovative.

Will not change as BIM is the complete method for building design and is the best management of information.

10.

Did you able to accomplish the goal by your current working method?

No

Yes

Apart from the project leader managers, questionnaire was also prepared for the construction workers to check the efficiency of the working methods at the ground level. There was a random sampling and 10 workers were selected to answer the survey questions which were mainly objective type.

Respondents

Which working method is used in your industry?

Are you satisfied with the designing tool used?

Will you be happy if the industry adopts new designing tool?

Are you productive with the current designing tool used by the industry?

Does the current working method is time efficient?

Is there any coordination problem?

Resp. 1

Traditional

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

2

Traditional

Yes

Indifferent

Yes

Yes

Yes

3

Traditional

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

4

Traditional

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

5

Building Information Modeling

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

6

Traditional

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

7

Building Information Modeling

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

8

Traditional

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

9

Building Information Modeling

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

10

Traditional

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

The questionnaire was designed for knowing the hurdles faced by the on site workers. With the above survey answers, quite significant inferences can be drawn. It can be seen that in India, mostly traditional designs are used by the architecture, engineering and construction(AEC) industry. Also, there is a reluctance in the change from these traditional working methods to newer technology like building information modeling(BIM). This reluctance could be due to the expertise needed for the new technology and the human tendency to resist new technology and change. Also, the major response of the industry using traditional methods is that they face coordination problems. Therefore, this can be avoided when the designing tool used is BIM.

Although, almost every part of the world is adapting and embracing building information modeling(BIM). In India, it will take time for the builders to adapt this new technology. One example of successful adoption of 5D BIM in India is of Nagpur Metro Rail Project. Slowly but gradually, India is adopting this new technology to improve the efficiency, effectiveness and cost cutting. Private and public sectors are excited to implement this design because this can provide them with the minutest of information involved in the construction of a building. However, there is more need to make the country aware of this technology since majority of the users are still working with the traditional methods.

For further analysing the impact on the profitability of the architecture, engineering and construction industry (AECs) who implemented the newer technology building information modeling(BIM), data has been collected. We have taken the data of a construction industry, where before 2013 traditional working method was used. The industry has taken the initiative to implement the newer technology which is building information Modeling (BIM) from 2013. An effort has been taken to draw a comparison between the cost structure and hence the profitability of the industry before and after the implementation.

The profitability of the company is increasing over years. The trend analysis shows that the industry has started to grow after the stagnant period 2007-2013. As we know, the profitability comprises of two main components- revenue and cost. Therefore, the reason for the rise in the profitability can be attributed either to the rise in revenues or a cut in costs. Since, we are aware that the new technology directly impacts the cost structure of an industry, we have gazed on the cost of the industry prior and after the implementation.

It is surprising to note that the cost structure has gradually fallen in spite of the high implementation costs of the building information modeling(BIM). Apparently, this is because the benefits of using this building information modeling is more than the high hardware and software costs of using this tool. Also, implementation of BIM provides the AEC industries a competitive edge as they can offer more new services to their clients and thereby can offer maximum return on their investment. It is noticed worldwide that BIM reduces the life cycle costs by providing higher quality products and at the same time providing efficient buildings. The construction workers are also benefitted as they get a very clearer and accurate visualization of the designs. It also benefits the owner as it is easy for them to explain 5D visualization rather than 2D drawings.

In spite of the benefits of BIM use, the adoption of this tool is very slow, specially in India. There could be many reasons for not adopting this. One could be the nontechnical factors like training, investment etc. The other could be the organisational factors like intellectual property, liability and trust. Also, there could be other issues like security risk, not willing to share information, lack of collaboration management tools, complexity of developing building information model.

According to a survey conducted by Dodge Data and Analytics, the largest barrier in the implementation and success of BIM was low level of team interest in the members and low level of collaboration among team members. Sometimes it is the lack of legal environment which hinders the BIM use. The owner of the AEC industries are resistant to the initial financial burden of BIM use, that is the cost associated with the purchase of the software and training the employees. Apart form this, there is a chance that lack of knowledge to the workers will hinder the growth if the company.

In the recent years, many private and public sector companies have started to use the building information Modeling in their new projects. This has started to gain importance in the architecture, engineering and construction industries. A survey was conducted to find out the sectors in which this BIM design tool is used. The result was that architects, site engineers, structural engineers, mechanical engineers, and contractors are all benefitted by the BIM use but the BIM use was not reached to education facility projects.

In India, the architecture, engineering and construction industries(AECs) are the second largest after the agriculture industry. In this industry, employment is above 35 million people. This industry attracts the second largest inflow of foreign direct investment and contributes about more than 11 per cent to the gross domestic product of India. Therefore, the government should take some steps to encourage the use of BIM and should provide support to the small and medium architecture, engineering and construction industries for the implementation of BIM. Lack of expertise and training is the only major problems which should be tried to overcome. Also, BIM use should not be restricted to theses industries. It should be used in the education projects to improve the collaborative knowledge sharing among the contractors and clients, designers, that will further result in better quality educational buildings.

As per construction 2025 targets, the implementation of BIM software can reduce the initial cost of construction and the whole life cycle costs by 50 percent. Moreover, it was projected that the greenhouse emissions will be reduced up to 50 percent. The time taken from the inception to completion of the project will be reduced by 50 percent. All these benefits provoke to implement this new technology to bring revolution in the architecture, engineering and construction industries which is still at the infancy stage in the adoption of BIM.

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