Human Anatomy and Physiology

Question1. Homeostasis refers to the process of maintaining a stable and constant internal environment that is maintained by resisting the change. Multiple mechanisms works in combination that assists in maintaining a set points.

It involves negative feedback loop that is characterized by the change in direction of the stimulus that results in the either increase or decrease of the stimulus. The example of negative feedback loop is that the blood sugar levels is best controlled by the negative feedback loop. When an individual intakes food, blood glucose level rises then in response to this rise the pancreas reacts by secreting insulin into the blood. The higher insulin levels causes the glucose to transport to cells. The glucose is stored as glycogen in liver cells thus dropping the level of glucose. As a response, the pancreas ceases to secrete insulin.

The positive feedback loop is when the direction of stimulus is maintained and accelerated. The birth of human baby is positive feedback and the infant push against the cervix that leads to stretching and this leads to nerve impulse that is sent to the brain and it stimulates pituitary to release oxytocin. This further causes the uterus to contract.

Question 2. Two organs that are located in epigastric region are stomach and the liver.

Question3. The two types of sweat glands are eccrine and apocrine glands. The main difference between the two sweat glands is the location that is eccrine glands are the numerous type that are found on the palms and all over the human body. The second type of sweat glands that are apocrine glands are those that are located in the armpits and perianal area. There are major other differences based on the age at which they become active and on the size.

Question 4. The first factor that allows the smooth movement is the articular cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of the bones. The second factors is synovial membrane that allows smooth movement of the bones.

Question 5. The basic function of bone is body support, hematopoiesis, facilitation of movement and storage of minerals and fats.

The basic function of skeleton is support, endocrine regulation, storage of minerals and synthesis of blood cells.

Question 6. The relationship between epiphyseal plate and epiphyseal line is that there a cartilage is formed. The epiphyseal plate is a hyaline cartilage plate and in the older adults who have ceased to grow this plate is replaced by the epiphyseal line.

Question 7. The major muscle of respiration is diaphragm and this muscle is located at a position that separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity. It is located below the lungs.

Question 8. In skeletal muscle contraction, the main function of sarcoplasmic reticulum is to store calcium ions and of T tubules are closely related with one specific region of SR called as the terminal cisternae. This is the cite of calcium release.

Question 9. Main function of following lobes of the brain are:

Frontal: Cognitive functions and plays an important role in controlling the voluntary movements.

Parietal: It process information related to the movement, taste, touch and temperature.

Temporal: This lobe is important for hearing, forming memories and visual processing.

Occipital: This has a role to play in vision

Question 10. The events that occurs are:

1. the signal arrives at the axon terminal

2. Sodium and calcium channel opens

3. Ach vehicles gets fused with the presynaptic membrane

4. Ach gets diffused across the synaptic cleft and on the post- synaptic membrane it binds to the ACH receptors

5. The signal transmission to the post synaptic cell takes place.

Question 11. The first hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland is growth hormone that promotes the growth of body tissues. The second hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland is prolactin that promotes the milk production from the mammary glands. The first hormone released from the posterior pituitary gland is oxytocin that stimulates uterine contractions during the childbirth and the second hormone released by the posterior pituitary gland is antidiuretic hormone (ADH) that stimulates the water reabsorption by the kidneys.

Question 12. The two hormones that are secreted from the pancreas are insulin and glucagon. These are secreted by the islet cells within the pancreas and are secreted in response to the blood sugar levels.

Question 13. The three stages of haemostasis are:

1. Vasoconstriction that is a intense contraction of blood vessels

2. the synthesis of a platelet plug

3. coagulation that reinforces the platelet plug within the fibrin

Question 14. The muscular walls of the lower chambers are thicker than the atria because they are supposed to pump the blood out of the heart. The lower chambers are right and left ventricles and this difference is due to the functional difference.

Question 15.

Vessels: They are the thin walls with the large lumens and the endothelium looks smooth.

Arteries: They are the thick walls within the lumens and endothelium looks wavy because of the constriction of the smooth muscles.

Veins: They transport blood into two districts and are of two types that are systemic veins and pulmonary veins.

Capillaries: They are microscopic channels that ensures the supply of blood to the tissue. The walls of capillaries are made of endothelial layers.

Question 16. The contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles leads to the pressure change as a result of which inspiration and expiration happens. The volume is the volume of air inhaled in a normal breath. The inspiratory capacity is the volume of air intake in a deep breath and residual volume is the amount of air left in lungs.

Question 17.

1. K.

2. D.

3. F.

4. C. AND J.

5. A.

6. H.

7. E.

8. L.

Question 18. The three major pressures that controls the net filtration in the glomerulus are:

Glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure

Capsular hydrostatic pressure

Blood colloid osmotic pressure

Question 19.

1. Nephron

2. Glomerular filtration rate

3. Calyxes

Question 20.

1. F.

2. E.

3. A.

4. C.

5. B.

6. D.

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