Transfusion Science

Abstract on Transfusion Science

The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed analysis on the ABO blood group and its variants, its biochemical nature, its importance, the way in which the Abo blood group is natural, the methods required to regulate the ABO blood group, reasons for the routine blood grouping. The findings in this paper suggest that the blood group ABO is common among all individuals, ever since the age of six months. This blood group was identified by Karl Landsteiner in the 1900.The process of knowing a blood type is significant as it helps in successful transfusions and transplants. Thus, it can be said that ABO blood group is the utmost noteworthy aspect in the process of transfusion remedy, as well as its antigens because they have brought about the evolution of mankind. .

Keywords: ABO Blood Group, Importance, Biochemical Nature, Inheritance, Blood Grouping, Laboratory Techniques.

Introduction to Transfusion Science

There are various types of blood groups which are known to humankind. The International Society of Blood Transfusion has documented 33 types of blood group systems (Lögdberg, Reid, Lamont, and Zelinski, 2005). In 1990, Karl Landsteiner was accredited for the unearthing of the ABO blood group (Owen. 2000). Until the detection of the ABO blood group, all types of blood was presumed as equal and frequently the blood transfusions which were committed, has tragic consequences. The aim of this essay is to identify the various aspects of the ABO blood group, constituting the how, what and why of the mentioned blood group. For this purpose, this paper will provide a detailed analysis on the ABO blood group, where it will discuss the various aspects of the importance of the blood group, its biochemical nature, the way in which the its antigens are inherited, the reasons for the blood group being regularly grouped rendering to this precise blood group, the laboratory methods used to regulate the ABO blood group, followed by the concluding paragraph.

Importance of the ABO Blood Group

The ABO Blood Group is significant as it is of prime importance in the field of transfusions, as this specific blood type is the most immune as compare to other blood groups. During the evolution of mankind, the ABO blood group turned to be of significance as the occurrences of various ABO blood types differed between inhabitants, which suggests that a specific population is immune to a specific disease ( Dean, 2005). Further, the ABO blood groups have been known to have a significant role in physiology, along with their role in transfusions. In recent years, it has been found that the red cell antigens, that is, A and B carbohydrate structures, can be seen on different selection of cells, proteins and tissues, which lead to the indication of these antigens being involved in physiological processes. It was a significant contribution by Landsteiner which has led to the development of treatment. He calculated the antigenic possessions of the chemically modified proteins, which led to the enlightenment of new specificities. This process brought more to the protein antigens by attaching small organic molecules, led to the creation of what he called ‘haptens’ (Landsteiner, and Jagic, 1904; Landsteiner, 1921). This overview by Landsteiner, to the neurological research, led to the construction of an examination into the problems of antibody combining sites, antibody-antigen binding forces and antigenic determinants.

The Biochemical Nature of the ABO Blood Group

ABO has been and is the most significant contribution to the process of transfusion and transplantation, and anyone having attained the age of six months can retain the clinically significant anti-A and/or anti-B antibodies in their system. The blood group A consists of antibody elements in contradiction of the blood group B in serum and vice versa, whereas, blood group O contains neither A nor B antigens, but has both their antibodies in serum.

There are four rudimentary ABO phenotypes, namely O, A, B and AB. After the discovery that the blood group A RBCs has a different reaction to a specific antibody, later renamed anti-A1, separated into two phenotypes, A1 and A2. The RBCs with phenotype A1 create a reaction with anti-A1, which make upto about 80% of the blood type A. RBSs with the phenotype A2, have no reaction with anti-A1, which create the rest of the 20% of blood type A. Further, there are many sub-groups of blood group A, where RBCs are fragile and cannot define the A antigen, however, the feeble alternatives of the blood group B phenotype are intermittent (Daniels, 2002).

The immunity structure of a human creates antibodies whenever the ABO blood group antigens are not available in a being’s RBCs. Few individuals will have anti-B antibodies, whereas few consist of anti-A antibodies. Blood group O is mutual and people with blood group O consist of both anti-A and anti-B in their serum. Further, blood group AB is the most uncommon among individuals, as they will neither have anti-A not anti-B in their serum. In the serum, ABO antibodies are natural made and their making is enthused when the insusceptible structure senses the ABO blood group antigens missing in the food which is consumed or in micro-organisms.

The ABO locus has three significant allelic types, namely, A, B and O. The A allele contains a glycosyltransferase which creates the A antigen, that is, N-acetylgalactosamine, the B allele contains a glycosyltransferase which creates the B antigen, that is, D-galactose, which is its immunodominant sugar. The O allele consists of an enzyme which has no purpose, neither A not B antigen is manufactured, which leaves the fundamental predecessor, H, unchanged (Dean, 2005).

Inheritance of the ABO Blood Group Antigens

Finding out the blood group of an individual before a transfusion or transplant is a significant process, as it may have tragic consequences. The ABO antigens in an individual’s immune system may act as tumor markers. Its ppresence in the body may increase or decrease in specific diseases, especially, Acute Myeloid Lukemia (AML). Further, the B antigen may be attained in certain communicable ailments. The ABO blood type is considered in an autosomal codominant manner, where the A and B alleles are codominant and the O allele is lowering (Dean, 2015). Since the A and B alleles are codominant, A and B antigens are seen on the red blood cells, when a single allele is available. As O does not generate any A or B antigens, they are occasionally termed the ‘silent’ alleles (Australian Red Cross Lifeblood, 2020).

Every individual has an ABO blood type, that is, A, B, AB or O, inclusive of an Rh factor, either positive or negative. As a child inherits his/her parent’s features, blood type is hereditary from the parents. Every biological parents bequeath two of the ABO genes to their child. The A and B genes are central, whereas, the O gene is retreating. For example, when an O gene is combined with an A gene, the blood group will be A (Baylor Scott & White Blood Center, 2020)

Routine Blood Grouping according to the ABO Blood Group System

Certain practices in the blood grouping system have been changed and there have been many arguments regarding the most significant processes for the attainment of blood through voting and emergency situations. Blood can be attained by habitually requesting individuals to donate blood by grouping and cross matching for the optional medical patients. Blood can be ordered without the full set of research (Miller, 2010). The ABO-Rh capturing leads to the formation of 99.8% chance of an attuned transfusion. The antibody screening increases the safety margin to 99.94% and a further cross match can increase the safety standard to 99.95%. If there is no case of cross matching, then is a chance of misplacing the antigens on the donor’s cells. However, in clinical cases, these have a reduced amount of importance. The Rh blood group has a great significance, as these are extremely immunogenic. Blood Grouping Distribution knowledge is an important element is avoiding maternal mortality rates, because it leads to the admittance of safe and adequate blood supply. It is further important for clinical studies as well as topographical information. The blood group system is significant as it provides the relationship between various blood groups with various sicknesses and their atmosphere.

Few blood groups are known to be more susceptible to to infectious diseases, where various studies show that A group people are more susceptible to cardiovascular ailments. This type of sickness is less prone to take place with individuals hailing from O blood group, which have a defensive result as contrary to these illnesses. 

Laboratory Techniques Used to Determine ABO Blood Group

The Red Blood Cells are different from each other, based on their surface antigen structure. In clinical laboratories, there is a standard procedure to test the BGs A, which contain antigen A; B, containing antigen B; AB, having both A and B antigen; O, containing neither A nor B antigen as well as Rh, releasing evidence regarding the presence or absence of the Rh antigens (Mujahid and Dickert, 2016).

There are various techniques to determine the ABO blood group, one of which was presented by Olsson and Chester, by using the multiples PCR. Multiple target sequences are augmented in a single tube, which are monitored by constraint digests in the process (Olsson and Chester, 1995). Blood grouping is a greatly used process in the forensic laboratories. The existence of the ABO blood group and the Rhesus factor is practiced to the congenital antigens on the red cell exterior with the help of precise antibodies (Kumar, et al., 2016). Further the Absorption Evolution AE technique, used for blood grouping of dried stains, which was designed by Siracusa, is now used by all forensic laboratories, as it is known to be the most subtle and dependable process (Xingzhi, et al., 1993).

In recent years, there have been many techniques which have been introduced and there have been certain investigations which depict 100% accuracy in confirming the ABO blood group through saliva. There are two ways through which ABO blood group substances can be detected (Fiori and Benciolini, 1972). They are:

  1. Absorption-inhibition method
  2. Absorption-elution method.

Between these two methods, the absorption-inhibition method is simple. Further, in the blood grouping, the creation of the use of saliva can be helpful in the establishment of saliva as a noninvasive technique in the unchanging blood examination (Velani, Shah and Lakade, 2018).

Conclusion on Transfusion Science

Thus, the aim of this paper was to provide a detailed analysis on the ABO blood group and the ways in which it works and how it can be determined through various processes. For this purpose, this paper has provided an analysis on the significance of the ABO blood group, its biochemical nature, the ways in which the ABO antigens are inherited, reasons for the blood being routinely grouped in accordance with the ABO blood group system, as well as the laboratory techniques to regulate the ABO blood group. Therefore, it can be said that ABO is a common type of blood group which is found in every individual, from the age of six months.

Reference List for Transfusion Science

Australian Red Cross Lifeblood. 2020. Inheritance patterns of blood groups. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 21 August 2020]

Baylor Scott & White Blood Center. 2020. Blood type genetics and compatibility. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 21 August 2020]

Daniels G. 2002. Human Blood Groups, Second ed, Blackwell Science.

Dean, L. 2005. Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. The US: National Center for Biotechnoology Information

Dean, L. 2015. ABO Blood Group. In Pratt, V.M., Mcleod, H. L., Rubinstein, W. S., et al. Medical Genetics. The US: National Center for Biotechnology Information

Fiori, A. and Benciolini, P. 1972. The ABO grouping of stains from body fluids. Int J Legal Med. 70(4), pp.214–222.

Kumar, P. V., Vanishree, M., Anila, K., Hunasgi, S., Suryadeva, S. S., and Kardikar, S. 2016. Determination of ABO blood grouping and Rhesus factor from tooth material. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol, 20(3), pp.540-544.

Landsteiner, K. 1921. Über heterogenetisches Antigen und Hapten. XV. Mitteilungen über Antigene. Biochemische Zeitschrift, 119, pp.294–306.

Landsteiner, K. and Jagic, N. 1904. Ueber Analogien der Wirkung kolloidaler Kieselsäure mit den Reaktionen der Immunkörper und verwandter Stoffe. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 17, pp.63–64.

Lögdberg, L, Reid, M.E., Lamont, R.E. and Zelinski, T. 2005. Human blood group genes 2004: Chromosomal locations and cloning strategies. Transfus Med Rev. 19, pp.45–57.

Miller, R. D. 2010. Transfusion therapy. In: Miller RD, Ericksson LI, Fleischer LA, Weiner-Kronish JP, Young LA, editors. Miller's Anesthesia. 7th ed. (pp. 1739-66). Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.

Mujahid, A. and Dickert, F. L. 2016. Blood group typing: From classical strategies to the application of synthetic antibodies generated by molecular imprinting. Sensors, 16(1), p.51.

Olsson, M. L. and Chester, M. A. 1995. A rapid and simple ABO genotype screening method using a novel B/O2 versus A/O1 discriminating nucleotide substitution at the ABO locus. Vox. Sang. 69, pp.242–247.

Owen. R. 2000. Karl Landsteiner and the first human marker locus Genetics. 155(3), pp.995-8.

Velani, P. R., Shah, P and Lakade, L. 2018. Determination of ABO blood groups and Rh typing from dry salivary samples, Int J Clin Pediatr Dent, 11(2), pp. 100-104

Xingzhi, X., Ji, L., Hao, F., Ming, L. and Zhuyao, L. 1993. ABO blood grouping on dental tissue. J Forensic Sci. 38, pp.956–60

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