Corpus callosum is the most essential region of the brain as it consists of white matter which combines the right and left cerebral hemispheres. It is made up of myelinated fibers which are about 200 million in numbers. These fibers made heterotopic or homotopic protuberance towards contralateral neurons within the anatomical layer. During the initial phase of life, corpus callosum increase and expands quickly because of increment in the number of myelin, axons and diameter of axons. Corpus callosum development in a child is finished till he/she reaches four years of age but the growth continues up till he/she reaches 30 years of life. However, the growth is very slow (Goldstein et al., 2017).
The structure of corpus callosum from anterior to posterior is made up of four different parts. The names of these parts are rostrum, body, genu and splenium. Each of them has the responsibility of connecting different cortex areas. Isthmus is known as a very thin region in between splenium and the body located within the posterior side of the corpus callosum. Fibers coming out of the genu region cross over and make up the forceps minor, which is a connection between the areas of the frontal cortices. Splenium fibers go posteriorly and help in the forceps major, supplying an association among the occipital lobes. Corona radiata fibers as well as additional white matter fibers move about transversely all the way through the cerebral cortex. In the end, the frontal lobes orbital region connects by means of the rostral fibers. Because of its position, the corpus callosum is related very strongly with lateral ventricle and fornix. In combination with the fornix, it also makes a physical barrier to divide both of the lateral ventricles (Reeves, 2013, Goldstein et al., 2017).
The key role of corpus callosum is to get in between and transmit the information within both of the hemispheres so as to process motor, sensory and cognitive signals of high- level. According to many studies, it was observed that corpus callosum is involved in transferring of somatosensory, auditory and visual information. Pieces of evidence have been found that callosal fibers in the anterior transmit motor information among the posterior fibers and the frontal lobes take part in the processing of auditory, somatosensory and visual cues by linking the occipital, parietal and temporal lobes. With the maturing of the brain and development of the white matter, the corpus callosum plays a significant part in refining the cognitive function and motor movements. Some studies have also stated that corpus callosum inhibits the alien-hand syndrome and also stops the hand-motor behaviour which is uncoordinated (Goldstein et al., 2017).
Corpus callosum helps in the normal functioning of the body. There is a condition which is known as agenesis where a person is born without a corpus callosum. It can be founded out by doing an MRI. The patients of this problem may have behavioural troubles to serious neurological deficits. Difficulty can arise in solving problems and acquiring social skills, most of them fall under autism (Paul et al., 2014).
The relevance of this topic to nursing is that nurses can help patients with agenesis. They can assist with normal movement within the person's capacity. They can also help in language development in child and also facilitate in maintain proper communication. Nurses could also improve self-care practices so that the patient won’t be dependent on anyone (Chokkian, 2019).
Chokkian, J. (2019). Agenesis of corpus callosum. Indian Journal of Continuing Nursing Education, 20(2), 97.
Edwards, T. J., Sherr, E. H., Barkovich, A. J., & Richards, L. J. (2014). Clinical, genetic and imaging findings identify new causes for corpus callosum development syndromes. Brain, 137(6), 1579-1613.
Goldstein, A., Covington, B. P., Mahabadi, N., & Mesfin, F. B. (2017). Neuroanatomy, corpus callosum. StarPearls Publishing: Treasure Island, United States of America.
Paul, L. K., Corsello, C., Kennedy, D. P., & Adolphs, R. (2014). Agenesis of the corpus callosum and autism: a comprehensive comparison. Brain, 137(6), 1813-1829.
Reeves, A. G.(2013). Epilepsy and the corpus callosum. Springer Science & Business Media : United States of America.
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