In the mentioned case, it is clearly witnessed that Nevaeh being a 17 year old female suffering from extreme stress and amenorrhea. Despite of taking any advice from any doctor, she had taken twice, 500mg of paracetamol tablets in order to get rid from the extreme headache and panic. However, after diagnosis and ultrasound, it is found that, Nevaeh is found to be pregnant. And this resulted in extreme monitoring and supervision of the patient by the clinic so as to minimise any sort of problems presented within the body.
Q.1 A. After becoming pregnant, varied types of anatomical alterations arises. The prime reason behind such types of changes in mainly to contain and enlarge the growing fetus within the human body in an effective way. Along placenta development, glandular development also takes place. The role of these tissues is to prepare milk for the little infant. Just after becoming pregnant, the glandular tissue becomes active and starts generating milk and due to this, one of the breasts increases in shape and size rather than the other. And this might prove disturbing for Nevaeh (breastfeeding.asn.au. 2016).
B. Another essential hormone is oxytocin. It plays a very vital role in producing lactation since it assists in creating the ejection of milk with the help of the contraction of the myoepithelial cells. Due to the presence of this tissue, the breasts of the pregnant enlarges in size pre and post pregnancy. However, in most cases, the intensity of oxytocin enhances significantly in the first semester of pregnancy. But from third semester of pregnancy, decrease in the amount of the oxytocin takes place and is known as postpartum period. In maximum cases, the oxytocin increases from 50 pg/ml to 2000pg/ml (breastfeeding.asn.au. 2016).
Q.2 A. Kidney also plays a very essential role. It directly controls and maintains the quantity of water excretion. And this phenomenon is controlled by the hormone vasopressin or anti diuretic hormone (ADH). ADH also helps in insertion of water by transferring it within the membranes of the cells which is in line with the collecting ducts of the embryo. By doing so, the fetus can reabsorb a wide quantity of water. Yes, Nevaeh may be at risk of not maintaining the fluid mechanism as she is residing at streets for past 6 months and not at all cared by the parents or partner (nursingtimes.net, 2016).
B. Urinalysis is recognised as the procedure to test the urine of a pregnant individual. In this case, urinalysis is performed in order to identify, whether Nevaeh is pregnant or is suffering from any other sort of issues prior diagnose the cause of headache. As per the results of urinalysis, it can be witnessed the micro-albuminuria percentage is accurate and so the function of the kidney would remain accurate in the coming period of time.
Q.3 A. Gut motility is described as the process of stretching as well as narrowing of the the digestive tract. The Gut mortality of Nevaeh remains usually normal during the pregnancy and it helps in smooth functioning of the tract. Such is known as peristalsis that assists in transferring of the food product to diverse parts of the body and it begins from esophagus (nursingtimes.net, 2016).
B. It is very important to maintain adequate protein intake within the body of Nevaeh so as to maintain adequate development of the fetus. In case, the amount of protein lacks, the embryo may not get developed accurately and hence the protein accuracy is extremely important for the proper development of the baby (nursingtimes.net, 2016).
Q.4 A. Paracetamol is taken by Nevaeh in order to reduce the rate of headaches. Since, Nevaeh has taken 2 Paracetamol tablets and she took it orally. Bioavailability of paracetamol intravenously can lower the pain from the heads to a higher degree as compared to others. This is because, the absorption of the drug by the body takes place through gastrointestinal tract and is recognised as Hepatic first pass. This helps to maintain the functioning of the liver accurate and effective in all aspects (Ncbi.nim.nih.gov, 2018).
B. Half life drug is advantageous pharmakinetic parameter and it aids to present the actual time length required for the drug to persist within the body. It also helps to present whether the absorption of the drug takes place through multiple dosing regime or not. It is assumed that almost 50% of the paracetamol drug is absorbed by the body through assumption of the 100 parameter and hence the blood still includes the dose fo the medicine just after 24 hors as well (Ncbi.nim.nih.gov, 2018).
Q.5. A. The blood pressure result of Neveah is 138/87 mm Hg and this shows that it is quite higher as compared to others. It is quite common that the rate of blood pressure increases and decreases within some individual at the time of pregnancy. And this effect is mentioned as gestational high blood pressure (or hypertension). Such types of changes is witnessed mainly within the first time mainly within 20th weeks of the pregnancy and this suggest that the mean arterial pressure is likely to get fluctuated during pregnancy and it may cause disturbance within the vessel length of the fetus during the pregnancy. Thus, it can be said that changes in the level of blood pressure leads to varied types of disorders of kidney. Due to this, heart problems and chronic kidney diseases arises and hence the function of the kidney minimises slowly and gradually by time (Ncbi.nim.nih.gov, 2018).
B. The role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is to reduce the level of blood pressure. Such is done by reducing the hormone regulatory system of sodium and blood pressure. And by doing so the embryo of Neveah remains in actual position and in growing stage so that it remains accurate in the coming times (Ncbi.nim.nih.gov, 2018)
Conclusively, it can be stated that Neveah need to remain in a very care and concerned condition prior the birth of the baby. So that no negative effects arises within the body and the baby gets hampered due to such types of impacts.
Ncbi.nim.nih.gov, (2018). Blood Pressure Dynamics During Pregnancy And Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Retrieved from : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2033381/
Ncbi.nim.nih.gov, (2018). Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Intravenous Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) When Co-Administered with Intravenous Morphine in Healthy Adult Subjects. . Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5834589/
nursingtimes.net, (2016). Homeostasis – Part 4: fluid balance. Retrieved from: https://www.nursingtimes.net/clinical-archive/public-health-clinical-archive/homeostasis-part-4-fluid-balance-25-04-2016/
breastfeeding.asn.au. (2016). Insufficient glandular tissue (breast hypoplasia). Retrieved from: https://www.breastfeeding.asn.au/bfinfo/insufficient-glandular-tissue-breast-hypoplasia
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