Human Biological Science - Part 1

Q1. ANS response after eating pasta

The hepatic health of Stuart is deteriorating. With the consumption of simple carbohydrates as present in the bowl of pasta, the autonomic nervous system response will be an enhancement of the blood sugar levels (Röder et al., 2016). The food has a high glycemic index and thus digests faster. The sugar floods in the body. Increased consumption can result in decreasing insulin sensitivity and increase blood cholesterol levels, as a result, the heart rate of Stuart will increase. Increase in blood pressure will also be observed. The increased consumption of fats and low consumption of fibre in this diet will also cause an increased burden on the liver function and affect the overall health of Stuart.

Q2. Hormone for glucose homeostasis

The primary hormone that is associated with the process of glucose homeostasis is glucagon (Qaid & Abdelrahman, 2016). The hormone is procedures in the alpha cells of the pancreas and functions to raise the concentration of glucose as well as fatty acids in the bloodstream. The bowl of pasta will serve as a source of simple carbohydrates for Stuart and thus increase the blood glucose rates through the secretion of Glucagon (Röder et al., 2016). The hormone is the primary catabolic hormone of the body and affects the course of other hormones like insulin that affect the course of blood glucose levels. Other hormones that are associated in the response include epinephrine, growth hormone and cortisol that affect the process of glucose homeostasis in the body of an individual.

Human Biological Science - Part 2

Q1. The blood pressure of Stuart

The blood pressure of Stuart is 105/66mmHg. The structural changes that are associated with the age in the patient result in a decrease in the elasticity of the atrial vessel diameter and vessel wall rigidity that impair the functions of the blood vessels (Qaid & Abdelrahman, 2016). This impacts the blood pressure normalcy in the patient. Age associated changes occur in the peripheral vessels of the walls and arteries of the patient. The walls of the vein become thicker with the age as an increase in the connective tissue and calcium deposits (Pandey, 2018). Systolic blood pressure is observed in the patient to be low due to loss of elasticity in the vessels and fat deposition due to the unhealthy diet consumed by the patient (Baker et al., 2016).

Q2. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system for blood glucose level management

In the given case of Stuart, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system will play a role in the management of blood glucose levels of the patient. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system affects the blood pressure of the patient in the body (Baker et al., 2016). As the blood sodium levels are low and the blood potassium levels are high in patients, the renin enzyme is released by the kidney (Montero et al., 2016). This enzyme converts the angiotensinogen that is produced in the liver to angiotensin hormone that plays a crucial role in the blood glucose level management (Pandey, 2018). The conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II results in the release of aldosterone hormone that is produced by the adrenal glands. This impacts the blood glucose levels of the body and results in an increase in the metabolic activity through the action of epinephrine (Montero et al., 2016).

References for Pancreatic Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis

Baker, S. E., Limberg, J. K., Ranadive, S. M., & Joyner, M. J. (2016). Neurovascular control of blood pressure is influenced by aging, sex, and sex hormones. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 311(6), 1271-1275. https://journals.physiology.org/doi/abs/10.1152/ajpregu.00288.2016

Montero, D., Rauber, S., Gøtze, J. P., & Lundby, C. (2016). Reduction in central venous pressure enhances erythropoietin synthesis: Role of volume‐regulating hormones. Acta Physiologica, 218(2), 89-97. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/apha.12708

Pandey, K. N. (2018). Molecular and genetic aspects of guanylyl cyclase natriuretic peptide receptor-A in regulation of blood pressure and renal function. Physiological Genomics, 50(11), 913-928. https://journals.physiology.org/doi/abs/10.1152/physiolgenomics.00083.2018

Qaid, M. M., & Abdelrahman, M. M. (2016). Role of insulin and other related hormones in energy metabolism—A review. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 2(1), 1267691. https://www.cogentoa.com/article/10.1080/23311932.2016.1267691

Röder, P. V., Wu, B., Liu, Y., & Han, W. (2016). Pancreatic regulation of glucose homeostasis. Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 48(3), 219-219. https://www.nature.com/articles/emm20166/

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