Human Body in Health and Disease

Set-1- Cardiovascular System

  1. P-wave presents atrial depolarization, QRS complex presents ventricular depolarization and T & U wave presents ventricular repolarization.
  2. Pacemaking center of heart can be identified as the QRS complex. Deviation in this wave helps in determining the presence of Left-bundle branch block or right-bundle branch block.
  3. The single wave can be identified as a prolonged P-wave. The strip can represent the condition of Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome. This condition is manly observed along with a normal sinus rhythm. The patients are generally observing an abnormal heart racing, tagged along with short PR interval and normal QRS complex (Hunter, 2018). This condition is mainly manifested due to rapidly conducting accessory pathways that are directly connected to the bundle of His. This lets the pathways to bypass slowly over the main conducting atrioventricular node. The short-observed PR interval is mainly caused due to accelerated conduction observed through the atrioventricular node. This syndrome is often caused by multiple animalities, varying amongst various individuals. The main impact is however, driven by the abrupted conduction of the his-Purkinje fiber system. In some of the cases there is a presence of formation of intranodal or paranodal fibers are also observed, which gives rise to this abnormal conduction of accessory pathways. Another major reason that attributes to the manifestation of this syndrome in patients is due to the underlying structural abnormalities caused due to advancing age. This can also cause delay in pathways conduction and thus, hindering with the same.
  4. The activation of sympathetic nervous system helps in stimulation of SA and AV nodes. This leads to an increased heart rate and decreased cardiac output. This change is mainly brought by the peripheral chemoreceptors, which are located in the carotid and aortic bodies. These receptors are also responsible for monitoring the oxygen and carbon-dioxide content in blood. These centrally located chemoreceptors are quite sensitive to the surrounding levels of pH and carbon dioxide levels. During incidences of blood loss or increased vagus responses, these receptors come into action and impacting the overall circulation in the body (Deuchars, 2018). With an increased levels of carbon dioxide, there is an increase in the action potential as well. This leads to the stimulation of parasympathetic system, eventually lowering its overall action. This is mainly responsible for bringing about an increase in the heart rate and thus, an added increase in the rate of gaseous exchange and respiration. With this increase in the heart rate, the stroke volume also rises. This collectively result in increased stroke volume, directly impacts positively in causing a greater restoration of cardiac output and thereby, increasing the same. The role of baroreceptors is also deemed as quite crucial in this process, as they are the main responsible elements for ensuring sound conduction of the signals through the medium of chemoreceptors.
  5. The process of blood cell formation is also known as hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis. It is a continuous process in which the cellular constitute of the blood is replenished as and when required by the body to compensate for the blood content loss. This process occurs through the foetal and adult life to replace the cells that are generally removed in the process of circulation (Kuhikar, 2020). The main site for the prevalence of this process in adults in considered to be bone marrow and the lymphatic tissue. Whereas, in the foetus this process is observed to be taking place in the bone marrow and extramedullary sites such as liver and spleen as well. This process in a way of ensuring that mature blood cells derived from a primitive haemopoietic stem cells precursors, are an eventual result of methodical and systematic cell division and differentiation.

Anaemia is a one of the common medical condition in patients undergoing cancer treatment or cancer therapy. Cancer causes an underlying inflammation, which is liable to bring about a decreased production of red blood cells. Some of the chemotherapy regimen acts on the patients by slowing down the production and advancement of new blood cells in the bone marrow (Wilson, 2017). These effects can collectively bring about a decrease in the overall blood cells counts and thus, causing anaemia in patients. Patients who are impacted by kidney cancer, are often observed having anaemia. This is mainly due to the direct effect of kidney disease on the development of this condition. The kidneys are responsible for producing a hormone, which spurs on bone marrow to produce red blood cells. Some of the cancer management therapies can also lead to blood loss due to multiple secondary reasons. With the significant amount of blood loss, patients suffering from cancer can be observed to develop significantly impacting anaemia. People who are suffering from cancer and getting treated with the help of chemotherapy are more likely to be subjected to developing multiple types of infections. Some of the chemotherapy regimens work by posing a threat on the immune system of the body. These medications can be observed to reduce the number of infection-fighting or white blood cells in the body. This is observed in the patients as a condition called neutropenia. As these white blood cells help the body to fight against infection, hinderance with production of the same is liable to make the body more prone to develop underlying infections (Georges, 2018).

Set-2- Nervous System

  1. As the tumour is affecting the half of left side of the spinal column, the impact can also be observed partially. The left sided ascending tract are affected in the person leading to the impairment of touch and proprioception. Whereas, the right sided lateral spinothalamic tract is affected, leading to alteration with pain and temperature (Findlater, 2018). The changes observed are mainly secondary to the alterations in left ascending spinal tract.
  2. The lumbar region of the spine is mainly affected by the tumour as it begins with belly button and extends up to the sacral region. The patient is experiencing symptoms below the naval level, so evidently the tumour is affecting the lumbar region of the spine.
  3. As the tumour can be observed to be pressing against the left side of the spine, the patient is observing left sided motor function loss in the spine. Tumour generally hinders with the nerve conduction on the affected side, leading to progressive loss of muscle weakness and further causing loss of muscle control.
  4. Anterior corticospinal tract of the central nervous system that accommodates the cell bodies of neurons whose descending axons are responsible for voluntary movements.
  5. The first order of neurons in the spinothalamic tract is accommodated in pseudounipolar neurons within the dorsal root ganglion. Second order to neurons in the spinothalamic tract is accommodated in substantia gelatinosa of rolando nucleus proprius. As for the dorsal column pathway both first and second order of neurons are accommodated in dorsal root ganglia.
  6. Transient Ischemic attack is usually referred as mini stroke. This is due to the reason that the clinical signs and symptoms in patients might only last for about 24 hours. However, this generally shadows the larger negative impact the condition can have on the patient. the clot formed in the attack generally dissolves on its own, however, it can resurface again (Navis, 2019). The chances of the same is greater with the advancing age and patient having cardiovascular history or personal history of severe smoking as well. The occurrence of the incidence also magnifies by multiple folds, if the person has already had an attack before, as given in our case study. Therefore, it is a condition not to be neglected and not to be taken quite lightly, especially with the underlying risk factors.

Set-3- Respiratory System

Part-A- The structure can be identified as bronchioles. There is a presence of ciliated, pseudostratified columnar epithelium present. The bronchioles are not surrounded by cartilage. There is a presence of ring of smooth muscles surrounding the inner circle. There is a lack of glands. This also proves the presence of smooth muscles surrounding the fibrous tissues. This also suggest the presence of terminal bronchioles to the bigger anatomical structure of bronchioles as a whole unit, complementing the same.

Part-B- The second image represents the conducting epithelium. It is included as a respiratory mucosa which is modulated by conducting airways. These airways are generally covered with pseudostratified ciliated epithelium. The image is also associated with the presence of columnar cells of stratified structure. The nuclei are located at different levels as well as at the basement membrane. There is a presence of cilia visible on the apical membrane. These are passages responsible for having goblet cells, which helps in secretion of mucous. The basement can also be observed to be having a glassy appearance, commonly observed in conducting epithelium.

  1. a. Bronchioles two main functions are as follow:
  • They serve as a medium for gaseous exchange, allowing entry of air from external medium to the internal spaces of lung cavity.
  • It also helps in diffusing the delivered air into the complex nexus of alveoli present in the pleural cavity.

Bronchioles have two main structures as follow:

  • They have a lining called the lamina propria, which is mainly surrounded by the smooth muscles. These help in contraction when the flow of blood decreases and dilates, so as to regulate the circulation in the lung spaces (Jung, 2020).
  • Walls of bronchioles are lined with finger like projections called as cilia. These projections help in clearing out the debris and microbes from the air spaces.
  1. Conducting epithelium has two main functions as follow:
  • They help in protecting the air passages with the help of moistening them. They also act as a physical barrier to the entry of pathogens in the lung spaces and by helping with evacuating the same.
  • They are also made up of goblet cells which help in maintaining the moisture of epithelium and thus, allows the collection and accumulation of particulate matter to be evacuated out efficiently, within the air passages. Their main function is to promote mucocilliary clearance order with the air passages.

Conducting epithelium has two main structures:

  • It is made up of four types of cells. These cells are ciliated cells, goblet cells, club cells and airway basal cells. These cells play a major role in clearance and promoting smooth facilitation of conduction through the alveoli (Hiemstra, 2018).
  • The different cells structure present in the conducting epithelium at different levels help with stratified functions, aiming at maintaining airway clearance and smooth conduction of air movement across the air fields.
  1. The percentage oxygen saturation of the reading 96

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