Anaemia is a one of the common medical condition in patients undergoing cancer treatment or cancer therapy. Cancer causes an underlying inflammation, which is liable to bring about a decreased production of red blood cells. Some of the chemotherapy regimen acts on the patients by slowing down the production and advancement of new blood cells in the bone marrow (Wilson, 2017). These effects can collectively bring about a decrease in the overall blood cells counts and thus, causing anaemia in patients. Patients who are impacted by kidney cancer, are often observed having anaemia. This is mainly due to the direct effect of kidney disease on the development of this condition. The kidneys are responsible for producing a hormone, which spurs on bone marrow to produce red blood cells. Some of the cancer management therapies can also lead to blood loss due to multiple secondary reasons. With the significant amount of blood loss, patients suffering from cancer can be observed to develop significantly impacting anaemia. People who are suffering from cancer and getting treated with the help of chemotherapy are more likely to be subjected to developing multiple types of infections. Some of the chemotherapy regimens work by posing a threat on the immune system of the body. These medications can be observed to reduce the number of infection-fighting or white blood cells in the body. This is observed in the patients as a condition called neutropenia. As these white blood cells help the body to fight against infection, hinderance with production of the same is liable to make the body more prone to develop underlying infections (Georges, 2018).
Part-A- The structure can be identified as bronchioles. There is a presence of ciliated, pseudostratified columnar epithelium present. The bronchioles are not surrounded by cartilage. There is a presence of ring of smooth muscles surrounding the inner circle. There is a lack of glands. This also proves the presence of smooth muscles surrounding the fibrous tissues. This also suggest the presence of terminal bronchioles to the bigger anatomical structure of bronchioles as a whole unit, complementing the same.
Part-B- The second image represents the conducting epithelium. It is included as a respiratory mucosa which is modulated by conducting airways. These airways are generally covered with pseudostratified ciliated epithelium. The image is also associated with the presence of columnar cells of stratified structure. The nuclei are located at different levels as well as at the basement membrane. There is a presence of cilia visible on the apical membrane. These are passages responsible for having goblet cells, which helps in secretion of mucous. The basement can also be observed to be having a glassy appearance, commonly observed in conducting epithelium.
Bronchioles have two main structures as follow:
Conducting epithelium has two main structures:
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