Human Biology - Question 1

Primitive reflection is a pattern of automatic movement that begins during pregnancy and is fully displayed during delivery. These are natural reactions that initiate a developmental process that reveals neural circuits of a particular activity. Primitive reflections should be integrated for the development of natural motor activity and may interfere with the reflex response. This can lead to recurrence due to brain damage. These are found in patients with cerebral palsy or stroke. There are many studies on the role of primitive responses in the development of cerebral palsy. There are various studies focusing on adults primarily in adults with uneven muscle tonic tonic tonic cervical reflex (ATNR), symmetrical tonic cervical reflex (STNR) or tonic maze reflex (TLR) in healthy populations. Primitive reflection plays an important evolutionary role, preparing the newborn to move against gravity and gradually leading the voluntary movement through the process of unification in the first few months of life. Adults' response to a child's psychological development occurs when the central nervous system itself reaches maturity. This process involves the transmission of cortical control responses from the brain stem reflex response. If the process does not proceed properly, the child may become an inexperienced child with athletic skills that indicates difficulty in practicing, cycling, and maintaining balance. There are also problems with throwing and catching and children avoid games involving physical movement. Psychomotor disorders, also known as mild brain disorders, can correct and prevent the spontaneous development of the child. The first symptoms may be seen early in childhood but many later. In short, it is difficult to learn and act before school. When children reach school age they may be reflected and may be associated with academic or behavioral problems. Assam Tonic Cervical Reflex (ATNR), Symmetrical Tonic Cervical Reflex (STNR) and Tonic Labyrinth Reflex (TLR) as well as single reflex, palmar reflex, routing reflex and spinal galact reflex ability and efficiency. ATNRT spreads to the uterus at 18 weeks and is completely reduced at 3-9 months of age. Assuming the effects of ATNR can track the eye and cross the visual midline. Learning to read the phenomenon of reflexes can complicate communication and left-right confusion. One can observe spinal deformity caused by ATNNR. Not only is this a personal health problem, but it is also a high cost to society (Li, et al. 2013).

Human Biology - Question 2

Bone is an alternative tissue. Use a model structure where one can place the mineral matrix. In the development of skeletons, the most common template is colts. During embryonic development, structures are created that determine where the bones are formed. This structure is a flexible, semi-rigid matrix produced by chondroblasts and composed of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, collagen fibers and water. The matrix that surrounds and separates the chondroblasts is called chondrosis. Unlike most connective tissues, the cartilage is avascular. That is, cartilage does not supply blood vessels and removes metabolic waste products. All of these features are driven by extensions of the entire matrix. This is why damaged cartilage is not as easy to repair as most tissues.

Bones are formed in the cartridge matrix during fetal development and child development and growth. By the time the fetus was born, most of the cartridges had been replaced by bone. Some of the extra cartilage is somewhat replaced throughout infancy and some of the absorption remains in the adult skeleton.

Internal bone

During interstitial ossification, a sheet of mesenchymal (undivided) connective tissue directly produces compact, spongy bone. The flat bones of the mouth are mainly formed by intramambranic ossification of the skull and hammer (colored membrane).

This process begins when the mesenchymal cells of the fetal skeleton begin to collect and separate into specific cells (Fig. (Link to external site)). Some of these cells are isolated capillary, others into osteogenic cells and then osteoblasts. These eventually spread through the formation of bone tissue, but osteoblasts first appear in an effect called the ossification center.

Osteoblasts secrete osteoids. It is an intact matrix that accumulates in mineral salts and allows osteoblasts to attack, calcifying (hardening) within a few days. When attached, osteoblasts turn into bone cells (Fig. (Link to external site) b)) When osteoblasts are transformed into bone cells, the osteogenic cells of the surrounding connective tissue separate into new osteoblasts.

Endochondrial ossification follows 5 steps. (A) Membrane cells separate into cartilage cells. (B) Cartilage models of future skeletal and condromal morphology. (C) Capillaries enter the cartilage. Chondrocytes turn into bone membranes. Bone membrane color develops. Primary ossification center developed. (D) Cartilage and cartilage cells continue to grow at the ends of the bone. (E) A secondary ossification center is created. (F) The tip of the cartilage bone (growth) is located on the articular surface as the plate and joint cartridge (Amizuka, et al. 2012).

Human Biology - Question 3

About 10-20% of carotid diseases are caused by stroke. Stroke is a medical emergency that can leave one with permanent brain damage and muscle weakness. In severe cases, a stroke can be fatal.

Carotid disease can cause stroke:

Decreased blood flow. Atherosclerosis causes the carotid artery to become too narrow, preventing adequate blood from reaching parts of the brain.

Crack blades. The blade may break and flow into the small arteries of the brain. Bladder debris can cause a blockage in these small arteries, causing the blood supply to various parts of the brain to be blocked.

Blood clots. Some blades are prone to cracking of the artery wall and irregular surface formation. The body reacts like an injury and bends the blood clot which helps the clotting process in that area. The result is a large blood clot that blocks or delays blood flow to the brain and causes strokes (Lee, et al. 2011).

Human Biology - Question 4

The era of cardiovascular control

The pervasiveness of cardiovascular maladies, for example, coronary illness and cerebrovascular infection is the main source of death in the older. Resting blood pressure as a rule increments in corresponding with age. A typical reason for systolic hypertension in the older is a decline in diastolic blood pressure. The staying consistent increment in thoughtful action adds to hypertension. Diminished flexibility of the blood vessel divider is one of the causes or reasons for systolic hypertension in the older. Indeed, even without proof of neurotic arteriosclerosis, an abatement in the versatility of the blood vessel divider and an expansion in collagen in the blood vessel divider lead to atherosclerosis in mature age. At the point when blood vessels become less versatile, the impact of air diminishes, systolic blood pressure increments, and diastolic blood pressure diminishes. =Conversely, the rate of transient hypotension increments with age. Orthostatic hypotension is found in 20-30% of individuals more than 75 years old with postoperative hypotension with an abrupt blood pressure of> 20 mmHg (compressive) or> 10 mmHg (diffuse). Inside 0 minutes subsequent to eating, blood pressure drops to 20 mmHg (length of withdrawal). It is regular in grown-ups with steady hypertension and transient hypotension, who are associated with both age-related autonomic and administrative exercises.

Human Biology - Question 5

After death, the films of muscle cells become more porous to calcium particles.Living muscle cells receive energy in transporting calcium ions from cells. Calcium ions flowing into muscle cells promote bridging bonding between actin and myosin. The energy molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is absent until the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and muscle fibers are completely compressed or chronic. However, ATP is needed to get rid of muscle contractions (which can get calcium out of the cells and get rid of the fibers from each other). At the point when the organism passes on, the subsequent ATP recuperation reaction in the long run stops. Breathing and course no longer give oxygen, however proceed for a continuous period without relaxing. ATP saves decline quickly from muscle compression and other cell measures. At the point when ATP drops, the calcium siphon close off. This implies the actin and myosin filaments stay connected until the muscle itself starts to separate (Tsokos and Byard, 2012).

References for Epiphyseal Cartilage Calcification and Endochondral Ossification

Amizuka, N., Hasegawa, T., Oda, K., Luiz de Freitas, P.H., Hoshi, K., Li, M. and Ozawa, H., 2012. Histology of epiphyseal cartilage calcification and endochondral ossification. Front Biosci (Elite Ed)4(6), pp.2085-2100.

Kwak, H.S., Hwang, S.B., Jin, G.Y., Hippe, D.S. and Chung, G.H., 2013. Predictors of functional outcome after emergency carotid artery stenting and intra-arterial thrombolysis for treatment of acute stroke associated with obstruction of the proximal internal carotid artery and tandem downstream occlusion. American Journal of Neuroradiology34(4), pp.841-846.

Lee, C.M., Hong, I.H. and Park, S.P., 2011. Ophthalmic artery obstruction and cerebral infarction following periocular injection of autologous fat. Korean Journal of Ophthalmology25(5), pp.358-361.

Li, H., Kong, L., Wu, X. and Li, L., 2013. Primitive auditory memory is correlated with spatial unmasking that is based on direct-reflection integration. PLoS One8(4), p.e63106.

Tsokos, M. and Byard, R.W., 2012. Putrefactive “rigor mortis”. Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology8(2), pp.200-201.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Biology Assignment Help

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