DNA to Genome

Q1. A) Is medical research a good use of taxpayer’s money?

Genetic research costs almost 3 billion dollar every year worldwide with initial contribution by the government and rest is fulfilled by non-profit sources, private R&D institutions (Alan Mackay-Sim, 2017). Taxpayers and citizens of many nations have funded on genomic research and also have expectations to get desired results in medical research. Researchers argued that once they identify the genetic components of any illness like cancer, accurate prediction is easier and even chances of cure. Thus, genomics research science is a good field to implement taxpayer’s money for future development in genetic research.

B) Should governments spend more or less money in this area of research? Justify your answer using the info in the podcasts.

In this research area, public raised concerns over various aspects like healthcare, genetic identification which indicates whether to invest more or less in genetic research area. This simply means, individual understands the predictive rate of genetic testing is low. Secondly, the significant social barriers like insurance coverage that obstructs genetic testing (The Conversation, 2017). So, it is not advisable to ignore the concerns and assumptions of the public who are the main aspects of the research technology. Thus, in present scenario government should invest more than 3% funding in advancement of genetic research to get good returns and better human health.

Q2. Discuss two ethical issues that may arise in genetic biomedical research when DNA sequencing of human individuals and organisms is carried out

Over past some years, genomic science has evolved as a revolution in bioinformatics and scientific research technology. The two main ethical issues that may arise during DNA sequencing among human individuals-

Firstly, when a couple came for IVF they can pay more to clear the doubt of any serious medical problem by testing the genes of their embryos before implanting them. In Australia, the couples are allowed to select the healthy embryo and discard the medically affected embryo (ABC Radio National, 2018). The Medical Director Professor Peter Illingworth describes the medical ethics of genetic testing in Australia and the basic rules of IVF. As per Hillary Harper, explains in Life matters that the perspective parents can’t choose the gender of the embryo because it is against the ethics of IVF research technology.

Secondly, the appearance of CRISPR technology whose co-inventor is Jennifer Doudna transforms the technique of gene editing and helping the scientists to find out the actual cause of genetic diseases. But some ethical issues arises in the way of this technology like how it is implemented in the clinics for treating serious medical problems or how it is used to create the embryo as per human desire (CRISPR, 2018). Some fundamental ethical issues are-

  • Proper access to CRISPR application
  • To what extent practice of CRISPR is permissible
  • Whether clinical research accommodate all aspects of human genome editing and any regulatory framework is applied
  • Whether international regulatory body governs improper utilization of CRISPR technology

Q3.Lay statement for research funding

The healthcare system is the most prominent interest of any community around the world. Genomics means complete set of genetic objects present in a organism. Genomic technology is moderately new and disrupting technology in healthcare sector. It ensures better forecast of genetic diseases by rapid diagnoses, timely intervention and prevention through targeted therapy (Constable ,2019). The Australian Genomics address many challenges to implement proper genomic medicine in real healthcare system.

The growing studies of human genetics and increasing clinical functions for genome sequencing shows more understanding and greater attention is needed to estimate the expenditure on genome sequence. Health care researchers provide good medicines and lower cost which is favourable for economic system.

As per Amity international conference on artificial intelligence, 2019 Bioinformatics is computational techniques that use knowledge, data and information of healthcare sector. Various diseases like metabolic disorders, birth defects, urea-cycle problem and path aligner may be detect at early stage by using bioinformatics tools. These tools also help to process and compare the health care data related to genetics and proteomics.

Proteomics helps in better understanding the nature of organism than genomics. Proteomics is the study of molecular biology that involves the set of proteins articulate by genome present in an organism. The research study in proteomics is important because when mutations in the DNA occur then it is the proteins of the body that affected.

Refrences for Genetic Research Science

1. Australian of the Year Alan Mackay-Sim pledges to fight for medical research funding- AM with Sabra Lane, Linda Mottram on 26th Jan 2017 https://www.abc.net.au/radio/programs/am/australian-of-the-year-alan-mackay-sim-pledges-to/8214274 2. The Conversation March 2017 Why-it-might-be-time-to-reconsider-the-money-spent-on-genetics-research

3. CRISPR co-inventor Jennifer Doudna, and debating the ethics of gene editing -Science Friction with Natasha Mitchell on 27th May 2018 https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/sciencefriction/crispr-co-inventor-jennifer-doudna,-and-debating-the-ethics-of/9800058 4. https://www.australiangenomics.org.au/about-us/australian-genomics/

5. Majhi, V., Paul, S. and Jain, R., 2019, February. Bioinformatics for Healthcare Applications. In 2019 Amity International Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AICAI) (pp. 204-207). IEEE.

6. Constable, F.E., 2019. A Review of Diagnostic Technologies to Benefit the Australian Nursery Industry.

7. Chiara, M., Horner, D.S., Gissi, C. and Pesole, G., 2020. Comparative genomics suggests limited variability and similar evolutionary patterns between major clades of SARS-Cov-2. bioRxiv.

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