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  • Subject Name : Biological Science

BioScience

Task 2- Short Answer Questions

Question 2- Oxygen is an essential element in the human body. Answer the following:

1.

Q: What is normal oxygen saturation levels in a healthy person?

A: Normal oxygen saturation level in healthy individual falls in range of 80 and 100 millimetres of mercury (mm Hg) for healthy lungs (Holland, 2019). A typical reading is 95% to 100%, any level below this range is considered unsafe and requires urgent oxygen supplementation.

Q: Why must oxygen saturation be kept in homeostatic range?

A: Our cells in body requires continuous supply of oxygen. In the oxidative phosphorylation cycle, O2 is the final acceptor of electrons. If the levels of O2 is not optimised in the electron transport chain there will be increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)*. The ROS oxidises lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids which can lead to cellular damage or death. There are also homeostatic mechanisms for closely controlling the O2 levels within cells and tissues.

2.

Q: Trace the pathway of oxygen delivery to cells in the body (commencing at the alveoli until it enters the cells).

A: Gas exchange involves a process where oxygen (O2) is brought inside the body and carbon dioxide (CO2) is released outside the body. O2 enters into lungs and reaches the air sacs called alveoli. The alveoli are rich in blood supply and bring air close in contact with blood and then it is further transported to body for cellular respiration. The cells release CO2 in the blood and then blood takes it backwards to lungs which is exhaled out from the body.

In alveoli the partial pressure of O2 is greater than the blood. This makes the diffusion of O2 from the alveolar cells to the blood and further through vascular endothelium. In the blood, haemoglobin binds to the O2. It is the main component for O2 transport throughout the body. Haemoglobin carrying the O2 in RBCs is goes through the arteries, then to the capillaries and eventually to body tissues. The property of gases (O2) is to moves from an area with high partial pressure to area with low partial pressure and from higher concentration to low concentration.

Since tissues continually use O2 for energy, the concentration of O2 in the tissues is mostly less, which stimulates haemoglobin to release O2 into the tissues. O2 is released from haemoglobin at the capillaries and diffuses back into the blood from the RBCs. It traverses through the vascular endothelium and finally reaches to body cells (Powers and Dhamoon, 2019).

Q: How does the knowledge of this process relate to nursing/midwifery practice when measuring a patient’s oxygen saturation?

A: Pulse oximetry (SpO2) checks the oxygenation of individual by measuring arterial oxygen saturation of haemoglobin by a non-invasive sensor that is connected to the patient. The measurement through pulse oximeter ensure quicker diagnosis of hypoxia as it reduces the number of tests required for arterial blood gas, also it saves the patient from painful arterial punctures.

The measurement through pulse oximeter is based on principle of spectrophotometer. Since blood is present in oxygenated and deoxygenated forms so it can be measured through spectrophotometer. The relative absorption of both forms correlates with the arterial blood saturation levels.

Question 3. Cardiovascular disease is a national health priority effecting many Australians. A healthy eating pattern can contribute to maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system. An important part of this eating pattern is to replace saturated fats with unsaturated fats.

Answer the following:

1.

Q: Name 2 dietary sources of saturated fats

A: The saturated fats sources are dairy products and meat.

Q: Describe the effect a diet high in saturated fats can have on the structure and function of the cardiovascular system.

A: The saturated dietary fats increases total serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, and henceforth increased cardiovascular disease risk. LDL cholesterol gets deposited on the walls of the arteries causing cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis. In atherosclerosis, fat deposition leads to plaque formation making the arteries narrow and hard. This slows down the flow of blood into the arteries which eventually causes heart attacks and strokes. The arteries carry oxygen to the heart and the body, so if it is blocked by plaque the body will not be able to get enough oxygen for proper functioning (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2019).

2.

Q: Name two dietary sources of unsaturated fats

A: The unsaturated fats in diet can be obtained from vegetable oils and fishes like Solomon.

Q: Describe the role unsaturated fats play in a healthy cardiovascular system.

A: Unsaturated fats are healthy, as they help reduce the blood pressure and minimize triglycerides, a form of fat that reduces plaque build-up in arteries. Unsaturated fats affect lipids, and can modestly increase cholesterol levels and lower LDL cholesterol. Omega-3 fatty acids which is polyunsaturated fat, can also help lower the triglyceride levels and reduce heart disease and stroke risks. Unsaturated fats are fluidic at room temperature and are beneficial fats as they can raise levels of blood cholesterol, ease inflammation, regulate heart rhythms and perform a variety of other beneficial roles (Gammone et al, 2019).

References

Gammone, M. A., Gaspare, M., Parrinello, G., & D’Orazio, N. (2019). Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Benefits and Endpoints in Sport. Nutrients. 11(1), 46-62.

Holland, K. (2019). Is My Blood Oxygen Level Normal? Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/health/normal-blood-oxygen-level.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2019). Atherosclerosis. Retrieved from https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/atherosclerosis

Powers, K. A. & Dhamoon, A. S. (2019) Physiology, Pulmonary, Ventilation and Perfusion. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing.

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