Market Research

Contents

Introduction and Background.

Introduction.

Purpose Statement

Problem Statement

Limitations.

Literature Review..

Methodology.

Data Collection.

Sampling Procedure.

Data Analysis.

Ethical Compliance.

Timeline.

Works Cited.

Introduction and Background of Roles of Free and Fair Elections

Introduction to Roles of Advertisement

This research is aimed at studying the roles of advertisement in the promotion and strategic positioning of a business in the market. Advertisement is a form of sales promotion. Sales promotion involves all the strategies employed by companies in the effort to ensure that consumers buy their products/services. Sales promotions are aimed at attempting to persuade customers to buy some products from a particular shop r company. Business entities develop means through which the company has a good relationship with the customers, and thus more sales are realized. Business must exercise sales promotion so that their target customers are made aware of the company’s products and therefore, can purchase the products/services from wherever they are. It is upon the company to ensure that its customers have access to these products. Sales promotion is a strategy used in business to win the trust of the customers by showing them that the outcomes of a given company are the best and thus they should consider them than other products in the market.

There are various types of advertisement. Companies are at liberty to choose which kind of advertisement they intend to use based on the products or services offered by the business entity. A suitable type of advertisement means that more people will be reached and hence more sales will be realized and thus profits from the sales. These types of advertisement include the use of radio which is accessible to very many people both in rural and urban centres. The use of television as a type of advertisement is also another type where it mostly depends on the use of electricity. Most of the audience are those in urban centres where there is no problem with electricity, and thus most people are reached. There are also newspaper, magazines, directories and online platforms, among many others.

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this research will be to investigate the roles of advertisement in the promotion and strategic positioning of a business in the market. Advertisement is one of the tactics used in the world of business in promoting the sales of its products and services. It involves the use of billboards, social media platforms, and other means to ensure that many people have access to the information regarding the company’s products. The advertisement plays a significant role in the company’s sales because through advertisement, and many people get to know the importance of the products as well as the company involved in the production of the product. Through advertisement, people will have confidence in their product, and they will also develop some form of trust to the company, and as a result, the company will realize more sales from the advertisement. Despite the significant contributions of advertisements in an organization, its use is always not smooth because of the myriad of challenges that are encountered. This is exactly what this research seeks to study. It will explore the immense contributions of advertisements, its usage, challenges, and remedial measures that can be applied in order to make it effective and efficient in the promotion of a business.

Problem Statement

Many businesses rely on advertisement because it is a brilliant business strategy. It plays an integral role in the promotion of business. That it is why it is used as a part of marketing mix. However, its usage has not been fully-exploited because of many challenges that are encountered in the process of using it. The cost of doing an advert both in the print broadcast and the electronic media is too high. The company must spend a lot of money to carry out a meaningful advertisement. The use of radio, television newspaper among other prominent means of advertisement requires a lot of input which many companies cannot afford to pay and thus many companies have suffered due to the higher cost of the advertisement. There is reduced exposure to social media users. Social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, among many others, have put a restriction on the business adverts whereby their contents of business adverts are not passed to the social media users. For example, on YouTube, one has to subscribe to various business adverts to get the contents of the adverts.

This has affected the business in the advertisement process because not many people can subscribe to those platforms in that they need to be paid for. In the advertisement process, the companies face the challenge of dealing with their customers. They have a problem in addressing their customers in that society is comprised of both the literate and the illiterate. Not everyone can read and understand what the advert is all about. The advertising company must look at the ways of addressing the uneducated so that they can also get to know what the company wants them to know about their product. There is also the problem of passing the information to the disadvantaged in society. For example, for the deaf and blind, the company need to ensure that these people also have access to the information and thus, a challenge for the companies in getting the information passed to these people because the companies will have to incur considerable costs in trying to ensure that the information reaches the targeted group. This research will dig deeper into these challenges and seek to investigate how they can be mitigated so as to enable advertisement to serve its intended purpose. To achieve this, the research will seek to respond to the following questions:

RQ1: To what is advertisement used in business organizations?

RQ2: What are the benefits of advertisement in businesses?

RQ4: Which challenges hinder effective application of advertisements?

RQ5: Which strategies can be applied in order to address the challenges that hinder effective application of advertising?

Limitations

The research will be carried out for the purpose of accomplishing the predetermined research objectives. That is why I will try to do everything possible to ensure that the study is carried out in the right and best way possible. To achieve this, I will have to comply with the applicable procedures and regulations. However, this might not be smooth because of certain limitations that I might encounter in the course of preparations, sampling, data collection, analysis, and eventual presentation.

The first limitation that might hinder the research from achieving its intended objectives is time constraints. Quantitative is a complex study that involves lots of activities. Some of the major activities it entails are population selection, sampling, data collection and analysis. Each of these activities requires adequate time for them to be properly done. However, this might not be easy because I might not get enough time that can enable me to do so. I might not succeed in getting all the time that I need to engage in the surveys, data analysis and all the other procedures. That is likely to happen because of the many commitments that I have. Besides, the research might be constrained by the challenges pertaining to the participants. Since the research will involve human participants, it can be a good idea if I get enough sample participants who can represent the entire target population. However, this might not be the case as I might not get the right number of participants. This might be attributed to limited resources and lack of cooperation from the participants (Padilla-Díaz 102). Because of this, I might end up engaging a small sample size that might compromise the validity of my research hence hindering the findings from being generalized to other contexts. These are the limitations that I need to be cautious of because they might render my research unreliable and invalid at the end of it all.

Literature Review of Roles of Free and Fair Elections

Both print Broadcast and electronic media are very critical in the advertisement process. Many companies have adopted the broadcast and electronic media due to their ability to reach many people in a short period. The print broadcast media involves the use of newspaper, magazines among many others in the advertisement process. Though it is an expensive means of advertisement, it reaches very many people. The print broadcast consists of written information which is placed strategically, and most people can read the information contained in it. In the newspaper or magazines, the information lasts for too long for the targeted audience, unlike most of the other means of advertisement. In the electronic media, the information is also widely spread across a vast population. Most of the people have access to social media and thus can get information about a certain product being advertised. The electronic media is common among the youth. In products /services which are aimed or targets the youth, it is appropriate for the company to consider the use of electronic media such as YouTube, Twitter, Facebook Instagram, among many others in the advertisement of their products. The electronic media is very suitable in advertisement in that it targets a large population in the society because it gives an opportunity for the majority to get the adverts in social media.

There are various advantages than disadvantages associated with advertisement of the company products and services. Most companies have had to engage in the advertisement of their products due to their benefits to the business entity. These advantages include the following:

Increases the sale volume: With the advertisement of the company’s products, many people are reached, and as a result, they can purchase the product. When the products are bought in large quantities, the company realizes more profits, and that leads to the mass production of the products. When the demand for the products is high, it means that the company must engage in overproduction which is more profitable, leading to a reduction in the production cost.

Increase in the net profit: The advertisement is essential to the company in that it leads to the realization of more profit. With the overproduction, the company will also engage in the sale of many products. The purchase of many products means that the company will get a lot of profits from their sales. Business entities must ensure that they advertise their products to gain more benefits out of their purchases.

Stabilizing the sales volume: Companies need to engage in the advertisement for their company products frequently. The frequent advertisement helps the company to maintain the constant sales of their products. The regular advertisement helps the company in maintaining the flow of sales. Thus, the company will always be making profits, unlike other companies which do not do regular advertisement for their products.

Controlling the price of products: There are many instances where consumers are overcharged on the price of products. The advertisement is essential in protecting the consumers as well as retailers from being exploited by the greedy wholesalers. The control of the cost of the products through advertisement has encouraged the customers to buy the products because they already know the price. Therefore, they are not afraid of being taken advantage of by retailers.

Challenges faced during the advertisement

The cost of doing an advert both in the print broadcast and the electronic media is too high. The company must spend a lot of money to carry out a meaningful advertisement. The use of radio, television newspaper among other prominent means of advertisement requires a lot of input which many companies cannot afford to pay and thus many companies have suffered due to the higher cost of the advertisement.

There is reduced exposure to social media users. Social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, among many others, have put a restriction on the business adverts whereby their contents of business adverts are not passed to the social media users. For example, on YouTube, one has to subscribe to various business adverts to get the contents of the adverts. This has affected the business in the advertisement process because not many people can subscribe to those platforms in that they need to be paid for.

In the advertisement process, the companies face the challenge of dealing with their customers. They have a problem in addressing their customers in that society is comprised of both the literate and the illiterate. Not everyone can read and understand what the advert is all about. The advertising company must look at the ways of addressing the uneducated so that they can also get to know what the company wants them to know about their product.

There is also the problem of passing the information to the disadvantaged in society. For example, for the deaf and blind, the company need to ensure that these people also have access to the information and thus, a challenge for the companies in getting the information passed to these people because the companies will have to incur considerable costs in trying to ensure that the information reaches the targeted group.

Solution

Companies have an obligation to their customers in providing the relevant information about the products and services they deal with. This information can only reach the audience through advertisements in the electronic media and print media which are commonly used by many people around the world. The companies need to encounter loses in their business, but instead, they need to realize profits. Profits are the main motive of a business, and without profit realization, there is no need to engage in business. Therefore, the companies should engage in the best strategies in the promotion of sales of their products which will lead to a mass sale and thus overproduction of commodities. People need to be informed about the companies involved in the production of the products they want to buy. They also need to know the ingredients included in the manufacture of these products to be in a position to evaluate what they need and what they don’t need for their use. With this information in hand, the clients will not be afraid but will have the courage to buy and even refer other customers to buy the same product. By so doing, the company will have achieved in the promotion of sales of their products through advertisement.

Methodology of Roles of Free and Fair Elections

Data Collection

The research is aimed at studying the roles that free and fair elections play towards the prosperity of democracy in Pakistan. For the research to achieve its objectives, it will have to involve data-collection process. Data-collection is important because it will assist in the gathering of the required information from the target population (Gaya and Smith 531). Since the study is quantitative, it will use appropriate instruments that suit it best. After making all the considerations, I have made a decision to employ the use of Interviews.

Interview is an instrument in which the researcher engages the respondents on a one-on-one question-answer session. Interview is a survey method that is done to the individual participants. During the interview, the researcher will have to employ the use of structured questions. Each of the participants will get time to respond to the questions asked by the researcher. The questions will only be relevant to the research topic. Meaning, all the questions will be about the voting process (Creswell and Creswell 11). Such questions include free participation, transparency, accountability, fairness, and inclusivity. The rationale behind this choice is that interview will enable me to collect reliable first-hand data from the participants. At the same time, I will get an opportunity to collect comprehensive and detailed data. All these will be possible because, during the questioning time, I will get to seek further clarifications from the respondent. However, for all these to be a success, the interview process will have to follow the right procedure.

The first thing to do is to identify the target population and select a sample size that will be used to participate in the study on behalf of the population. Once this is done, I will organize and meet each of the participants and inform them about the pending research and its purpose. I will also explain to the participants that I intend to engage in the research process by explaining to them that I will request them to take part in a short interview (Creswell and Cheryl 21). I will also tell the participants that the research will be done in line with the ethical codes that govern research work. Apart from this, I will have to schedule for an interview that will be conducted at a time and venue that s convenient to each respondent. This will then be followed by the actual interview, a process that will only last for between 30 and 40 minutes. However, for the participants who might not be available for a facer-to-face interview, the process will be undertaken through the digital media-telephone, Zoom, and Skype.

Sampling Procedure

Just like any other study, this research will depend on participants each of whom will be drawn from the target population. Since he study will be about the politics of Pakistan, it will settle on the electorates and political leaders as the target population. However, given that it will not be practically possible to engage all the members from the target population, just a small sample of participants will be selected and given a chance to take part in the research. The purpose of the sample is to give data that will be used to represent the entire population (Sharma 750). To achieve this, a simple random sampling procedure will be used.

This sampling procedure will be used because it will enable me to collect unbiased data from the sample population. It will guarantee fairness since each member of the population will be given equal chances of taking part in the study. That will make data to be representational and bias-free. The selection will be done based on a well-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Meaning, only the individuals who meet the inclusion criteria will be allowed to take part in the study (Sharma 782). Some of the criteria that I will consider include age, voting experience, nationality, and leadership history. By strictly following this procedure, I will get to ensure that only those who meet the criteria will take part while those fail to do so will be excluded.

Data Analysis

The data-collection process will be followed by data analysis. Data analysis is a process that is done in order to organize the raw data so as to make it meaningful and presentable. Therefore, to ensure that my data is synthesized and organized, I will have to ensure that it is properly analyzed (Graue 14). To achieve this, I will undertake to use the most appropriate quantitative data analysis techniques. The analysis process will begin by the transcription of the audio responses from the individual participants. Once this is done, I will then organize the data through coding and further synthesis. However, for all these activities to be perfectly done, I will have to incorporate the use of T-Test software. It will facilitate the analysis and improve it by making the data more precise, readable, and comprehendible.

Ethical Compliance

The research is expected to make important contributions in the field of political science. For this to happen, I will have to do everything within my capacity to ensure that I conduct a study whose findings are reliable and credible. One way through which I will realize this goal is ethical compliance. I will have to ensure that the research activities are done in a strict adherence to all the applicable ethical standards that govern research work both within the university and in the country (Bouchard 62).

I will have to ensure that my study conforms to the ethical principle of autonomy. This means that I will have to ensure that I respect the independence of each of the respondents. Although I will rely on individual participants in the study, participation will not be forceful or coercive in any way. Instead, it will be voluntary. i will get a formal consent from each participant in which they state that they are free to participate and withdraw at will (Roberts 315).

Apart from this, I will comply with the ethical principle of safety. The research will not expose any of the participants to a physical, emotional, and psychological harm. It will be absolutely harm-free.

Lastly, I will comply with the ethical principle of confidentiality. Meaning, I will preserve the privacy of the participants’ data and not leak it to any unauthorized parties without the consent of the participants. Apart from this, I will employ the use of anonymity (Ngozwana 21). Meaning, at no any given time will I leak the real identity of the participants. Whenever I want to refer to my participants, I will use identifiers like serial, index, and code numbers.

Timeline of Roles of Free and Fair Elections

The research will be done in accordance with the time schedule outlined in this Gant chart:

ACTIVITY/WEEK

WK1

WK2

WK3

WK4

WK5

WK6

WK7

WK8

Background

               

Introduction

               

Research Purpose Statement

               

Research Problem Statement

               

Literature Review

               

Data Collection

               

Data Analysis

               

Viva

               

Works Cited for Roles of Free and Fair Elections

Ahmad, Niaz, Abida Bano, and Ashfaq U. Rehman. "Impact of the informal institutional

forces on the local government elections in Pakistan." Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ) 1.1 (2017): 62-70.

Batool, Lubna, Manzoor Ahmad, and Syed Ali Shah. "Engineering Electoral Design in

Terms of Globalization of Institutions: A Case Study of Pakistan." Global Political Review 3.1 (2018): 44-55.

Bouchard, Karen L. "Anonymity as a double-edge sword: Reflecting on the implications of

online qualitative research in studying sensitive topics." The Qualitative Report 21.1 (2016): 59-67.

Creswell, John W., and Cheryl N. Poth. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing

among five approaches. Sage publications, 2016.

Creswell, John W., and J. David Creswell. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and

mixed methods approaches. New York: Sage publications, 2017.

Gaya, H. J., and E. E. Smith. "Developing a qualitative single case study in the strategic

management realm: An appropriate research design." International Journal of Business Management and Economic Research 7.2 (2016): 529-538.

Graue, Carolin. "Qualitative data analysis." International Journal of Sales, Retailing &

Marketing 4.9 (2015): 5-14.

Jamil, Sadia. "Politics in a Digital Age: The Impact of New Media Technologies on Public

Participation and Political Campaign in Pakistan’s 2018 Elections–A Case Study of Karachi." Global Media Journal 16.31 (2018): 1-9

Khalil, Iqra, and Naveed Ahmed. "Military and Democracy: Conflict Resolution in Reference

with Constitutional and Political Development of Pakistan." South Asian Studies (1026-678X) 32.1 (2017).

Nawaz, Shamsa. "Violation of the UN Resolutions on Kashmir: India’s Quest for UNSC

Permanent Membership." Strategic Studies 38.1 (2018): 1-11.

Ngozwana, Nomazulu. "Ethical Dilemmas in Qualitative Research Methodology:

Researcher's Reflections." International Journal of Educational Methodology 4.1 (2018): 19-28.

Padilla-Díaz, Mariwilda. "Phenomenology in educational qualitative research: Philosophy as

science or philosophical science." International Journal of Educational Excellence 1.2 (2015): 101-110.

Roberts, Lynne D. "Ethical issues in conducting qualitative research in online communities."

Qualitative Research in Psychology 12.3 (2015): 314-325.

Shaikh, Babar Tasneem, Assad Hafeez, and Nabeela Ali. "Pakistan's Health and Population

Think Tank: a policy platform for achieving Sustainable Development Goal 3 national targets." Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 25.10 (2019): 754-759.

Sharma, Gaganpreet. "Pros and cons of different sampling techniques." International journal

of applied research 3.7 (2017): 749-752.

Zhirnov, Andrei, and Mariam Mufti. "The Electoral Constraints on Inter-Party Mobility of

Candidates: The Case of Pakistan." Comparative Politics 51.4 (2019): 519-554.

Ziring, Lawrence. Pakistan Enigma Political Development. Routledge, 2019.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Marketing Research Assignment Help

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