1. Facts on site and additional information –
The site was within walking distance of shops and restaurants in the city and within river premises,. The public transport system was within 400 m ie train station. The neighbouring land consisted of a storm water drainage pit and developers had requested permission for building a garden for the usage of residents in the premise. The site was also best with solar access with an orientation of 35 degrees towards the north. This is better for multiple purposes. The local climate of Perth is hot and dry in the summer season. It is benefitted with a cooling sea breeze. Winter is mild with an average daily temperature of 18 degrees Celsius and can drop below 10 degrees Celsius at night. The goal for all developers is that sustainable design is presented and wanted a housing requirement within the city. The important consideration for the design included sustainability, space utilization, and low energy consumptions. The passive design principle which recommends the usage of the renewable system may also be entertained. The materials chosen for construction shall have thermal efficiencies and insulation properties.
2. Problems related with basement
Soil is the major concern and an important factor for any construction. Before started the initial phase of construction the bearing capacity and strength test of the soil may carry out. When a basement Is constructed at a significant depth below ground level it requires some precautions and measures as the water table may be higher. Effective waterproofing systems may be provided within the performance grade to face the risk associated with it. Additional investigations regarding the assessment of groundwater conditions may be done with great care. There is also risk associated with the type of product or system that is used for the construction of the basement. Placement requirements shall be according to proper legislation standards. The safety in underpinning is the major concern for buildings foundation and load-bearing walls as it’s an important part considering the safety of adjacent buildings also. The temporary works for buildings may be concerned with proper planning and shall be carried out without damaging the livelihood. The concrete for construction shall be batched compared to ready mixed concrete. Batched concrete is the best option if measure correctly. The concrete that is required for construction of the basement shall be prepared with batch mixing than ready mixing as for ready mixing concrete there are more considerations like the amount of concreting and type of concreting etc. However ready mix concrete consumes time in transporting the concrete to the site. So the concrete that is used for basement construction shall be batch mixed concrete. Choosing the correct waterproofing method is an important factor that shall be considered with high importance. It's necessary to prevent the peeping of groundwater from side to other places. Water penetration to the concrete structure and seepage parameters are to be considered with extra care. Some of the problems in the basement due to moisture conditions are inadequate grading around the house, improper design of window wells, defective gutters and downspouts, and lack of proper drainage provision and under slab ducts and also structural cracks.
3. Most appropriate construction method for basement
a. Decision on method
The basement construction may be selected with solid masonry or concrete members and walls may have negligible embedment as supported by foundations. Foundation and other loads from adjacent
structures and existing structures are to be considered the basement wall shall continue tits vertical support with the help of possible concrete underpinning elements and beneath the walls. The underpinning members provide a peeping action contiguous pile wall that will help in vertical spanning to distribute the surcharge loads. Loads from foundations to adjacent structures will extent pressure on walls and there is a necessity of lateral and vertical support from existing ground level to the basement. Diagonal shoring elements may be provided below the piling works. It's necessary to provide holes in basement slabs if piles are required to be constructed and underpinning elements shall be provided towards the full perimeter of the basement.
B. Dealing with site problems
Manhole rings are to be dug properly and a temporary prop shall be installed. It is necessary to provide connection with concrete facing. Temporary propping to the contiguous wall may be removed thereafter. Proper protection measures are to be taken as there are neighbouring properties protected works to be considered. Safety precaution for considering the effect of shoring and underpinning for the basement structures are to be considered with importance
4. a. Decision on Water proofing method
The major waterproofing techniques include the usage of interior sealants, interior water drainage, and exterior basement waterproofing. The interior sealant is not so often used as a waterproofing measure, it could be only used as a temporary measure for keeping the basement dry and the tool shall be properly designed concerning the humidity level and its nature towards floors and walls. The most effective method of waterproofing is the interior water drainage system and this system helps in moving water from the house below the basement floors. This is an affordable waterproofing method and there is also an exterior waterproofing method. This method is suitable for high rise projects and its little costlier compared to other methods. This method is necessary to prevent water from causing structural damages with members like polymers and other membranes.
b. Dealing with site problems
Before deciding a method it is necessary to check the suitability of the method. First of all, the cost is a major factor which is to be considered and the quality and durability of the chosen material are to be considered with high importance. Several waterproofing companies will advise with a permanent solution. Some of them may be cost-effective and some of them may be durable. The application of an interior drainage system with basement dehumidifier and sump pumps could be used for long term applications and before implementing any technique it is necessary to the consult the site with a certified basement waterproofing agent so that the basement area could be thoroughly checked and expert decisions can be made.
5. Excavation plant for basement
Excavation is a process in civil engineering to take away the materials from the site above or below the ground levels. There are several mechanical plants for excavations which are required to complete the work quickly and can avoid dangerous condition to site workers and labors. This could achieve greater depth in less time and also less manpower could be used and the work could be completed at a low cost. Some of the disadvantages involved are large running and maintenance costs and it requires a large area of operation and less this method is less flexible for work planning with the increased cost of work. The plants involved in the excavation are faced with shovel excavators and backhoes. The bucket down the action of dragging the equipment is used for large excavation projects. The exact method for soil excavation depends on several factors like nature and condition of the soil, excavation size, groundwater condition, and surrounding site conditions. The basement shall be constructed by the dumpling method as in the figure below.
Here in this method, the site area is subdivided section by section and perimeter walls are to be kept in place an excavation initiates from the centre of the plot. The walls may be supported by shoring or soil anchors. The activity is done section by section until the full excavation is completed. This doesn’t requires much heavy equipment and cost is relatively smaller and can excavate up to a depth of 3m. In the very poor site or waterlogged site steel pile may be driven to the area to be excavated and this excavation is one of the most effective methods of basement construction.
Legian, M.K. and P.K. Hadley, 1977. Reliability of Laterally Loaded Pile Analysis. In the Proceeding of Offshore Technology Conference, Northeastern University.
Naveen, B.P., S. Nayak and K.L Pujar, 2010. Designing and Construction of Piles Under Various Field Conditions. In the Proceeding of Indian Geotechnical Conference, pp: 1035-1038
Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Engineering Assignment Help
Proofreading and Editing$9.00Per Page
Consultation with Expert$35.00Per Hour
Live Session 1-on-1$40.00Per 30 min.
Doing your Assignment with our resources is simple, take Expert assistance to ensure HD Grades. Here you Go....