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Physiological Systems and Processes

Slideone: So now I would like to start with the topic Measles by explaining about the microorganism involved in the prevalence of measles.

Slide Two: Measles is a viral infection that occurs due to Rubella virus that belongs to the family Togaviridae. Rubella virus multiplies in the cytoplasm of the infected cell and that is how they cause infection.

 Slide Three: Diagnostic Samples

Diagnostic samples are collected in case of presence of symptoms for measles which include rashes that begin from the face and spread to the chest, back and legs, fever, sore throat, runny nose, cough and tiny spots in the mouth.

The diagnostic samples taken for measles include:

  • Blood test- It is similar to a routine blood test wherein the blood sample is taken from the arm.
  • Nasal Aspirate- A sample is collected using gentle suction after injecting saline solution in the nose.
  • Swab test- A sample is collected from the nose or throat using a special swab.
  • Spinal Tap- Carried out only if meningitis or encephalitis is suspected.

Slide four: Diagnostic Tests

  • Detection of IgM Antibodies in a sample of serum by ELISA, collected within the first few days of the rash.
  • RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction) and molecular sample are prescribed for the confirmation of measles.
  • Plaque Reduction Neutralization (PRN) assay and IgG avidity testing are done to confirm measles when IgM samples are suspected to be a false positive or false negative.

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