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An Overview of The Bio Chemical Processes that Occur when We Run

What Happens to The Body Before We Start Running?

For every physical activity, the body requires energy. Any type of physical exercise increases our heart rate, boosts oxygen levels, improves cardiac output and raises the core body temperature. As soon as one starts running, their muscles start using adenosine triphosphate which are the energy molecules our body makes from the food we consume. Then the person an initial power surge (Adamala et al., 2017). This happens when ATP converts into another high powered molecule called Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP). After the initial power surge muscle cells will convert ADP back to ATP as they are expert recyclers.

As one continues to run some more and reach the 90 second mark, the body needs to release more ATP. For this, the cells break down Glycogen, a form of glucose fuel that is stored in the muscles. For this process, cells also pull glucose directly from one’s blood (Enzmann et al., 2018). This is the reason why running and physical exercise are recommended to offset high blood sugar.

As one’s muscles start working more, they start using more glucose, and later release lactic acid which create the burn. This is the sign of the physical activity led stress that the body is feeling.

What Happens to The Body Five Minutes After One Starts Running?

As one continues to run after five minutes their heart starts beating faster and then blood is directed towards one’s muscles. All the processes that usually occur in the body do not require the blood at this particular time. Everything gets directed towards running. At this point, a lot of heavy breathing starts happening, this is because muscles require a lot more oxygen to make the best use of glucose while running.

While we are running the gluteus maximus , the core muscles and our thighs keep us in an upright position, while our feet push us off the ground. we burn a lot of calories while we are running which may also include some of the fat that may have been stored.

The reason why we get that flushed feeling is because the circulatory system is diverting all the blood flow to our skin. Because of all the burning of glycogen and oxygen that occurs in the body, it also raises the overall body temperature (Receno et al., 2019). When this happens, the sweat glands take is as a cue to start releasing sweat so as to prevent overheating.

What Happens to The Body 45 Minutes After Running?

Often, runners will experience a surge of euphoria, this rush is due to endorphins. The production of carbon di oxide and hydrogen also change the pH level of blood by dropping it. running affects the overall blood chemistry of persons body and the effects can be seen withing 30 minutes after running. After just 30 minutes of exercise, the number of metabolites that are there in the bloodstream increase. The release of these mood elevating and regulating transmitters helps the overall chemistry of the body too.

 What Are the Processes Involved in The Mobilisation of Carbohydrates and Lipids ?

In our bodies adipose tissues is the main source of triacylglycerol. Conventionally, adipose tissue was considered to be a static store house for fats but recently it has been discovered that they are actively involved in the metabolism of fat. The adipose tissues come sunder the nervous system (Ziaaldini et al., 2018). The fat is broken down due to the sympathetic discharge that lead to the release of non-esterified fats in our body. The mobilisation of lipids is inhibited by denervation. Different types of metabolism are exhibited by different adipose tissues.

When it comes to the metabolism of carbohydrates, there are two methods involved- catabolic exercise and anabolic exercise. Running is a catabolic exercise. The catabolic processes of carbohydrates comprise of :

  1. Glycolysis
  2. Citric Acid Cycle
  3. Glycogenolysis
  4. HMP Pathway or Pentose Phosphate Pathway
  5. Uronic Acid Pathway.

What we refer to as metabolism is a very complex process wherein the molecules break down and synthesize inside a cell. Catabolism refers to the breakdown of molecules and anabolism refers to the synthesis of molecules. The fat and calories burnt during exercise are a result of catabolic or aerobic activity. These release energy.

Briefly Describe the Bio Chemical Pathways Used to Degrade These Fuels?

Glucose is converted to pyruvic acid when it is under aerobic conditions. This process of breakdown of glucose is called glycolysis (Woo et al., 2018). Breakdown of glucose to lactic under anaerobic condition also comes under glycolysis.

There are two phases of glycolysis one is the preparatory phase and the other one is the energy yielding phase.

The preparatory phase glucose is broken down to convert it into two molecules of D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Glucose is taken from the glycogen molecule or it enters the cell on its own. It is then phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate by converting ATP to ADP (Sarigiannis & Karakitsios, 2019). This occurs with the help of the enzyme hexokinase/glucokinase.

In Stage 2 of glycolysis the inorganic phosphate is released so that it can be used for the synthesis of ATP. This later converts the glyceraldehyde’s of the cell into pyruvate. Once glyceraldehyde is oxidized, then the hydrogen atom is removed from it. this is then phosphorylated to produce 1,3-diphosphoglycerate.

What Are the Differences in Yield of Atp for Both Lipids and Carbohydrates?

Lipids store the most amount of energy. Almost 80% of the energy is stored in them. This is what gives us the energy. Their net ATP yield is around 32 ATP. A lot of energy is released and restored as ATP during the oxidation of fatty acids. The ATP is produced from both the fatty acid spiral and the citric acid cycle (Spolaor et al., 2019).

For carbohydrates, digestion is the process through which energy is released via ATP. Oxidation of molecules is the process that leads to the production of ATP. the total ATP yield of glucose is 38 ATP but the initial glycolysis process uses 2 ATP. therefore, in the end, the net total ATP yield from catabolism is considered 36 ATP.

What Are the Cellular Compartments and Tissue Types Involved?

Connective tissues are the tissues involved in the catabolic or aerobic processes. These are the tissues that connect our bodies muscles, organs, nerves, and blood vessels to all the other parts. In the cellular process, mitochondrion is heavily involved too (Wang et al., 2019). Its membranes are specialized for aerobic respiration. the most important functions of mitochondria are to produce the energy currency of the cell, ATP (i.e., phosphorylation of ADP), and to regulate and control cellular metabolism. The main set operations involved in ATP production are the citric acid cycle or the Krebs cycle.

What Are the Inputs and Outputs of These Biochemical Pathways Involved?

The three pathways involved are phosphagen, aerobic glycolysis and anaerobic glycolysis. Phosphagen is essential whenever the body starts an aerobic activity and it uses creatine phosphate while having a very rapid rate of ATP production (Shin et al., 2018). This creatine phosphate is used to restore the ATP after it is broken down to release energy for nay activity.

 Aerobic glycolysis pathway requires oxygen as carbohydrates and fats can only be broken down in its presence. It has a slower rate of ATP production and that’s why it is helpful during activities of longer duration.

Anaerobic glycolysis pathway also has rapid rate of ATP production during activities that require large bursts of energy over longer periods of time. It is an intermediate pathway between phosphagen and aerobic glycolysis.

References for Bio Chemical Processes

Adamala, K. P., Martin-Alarcon, D. A., Guthrie-Honea, K. R., & Boyden, E. S. (2017). Engineering genetic circuit interactions within and between synthetic minimal cells. Nature chemistry9(5), 431.

Enzmann, F., Mayer, F., Rother, M., & Holtmann, D. (2018). Methanogens: biochemical background and biotechnological applications. AMB Express8(1), 1-22.

Receno, C. N., Liang, C., Korol, D. L., Atalay, M., Heffernan, K. S., Brutsaert, T. D., & DeRuisseau, K. C. (2019). Effects of prolonged dietary curcumin exposure on skeletal muscle biochemical and functional responses of aged male rats. International journal of molecular sciences20(5), 1178.

Sarigiannis, D., & Karakitsios, S. (2019). Advancing Chemical Risk Assessment through Human Physiology-Based Biochemical Process Modeling. Fluids4(1), 4.

Shin, S. W., Thachuk, C., & Winfree, E. (2019). Verifying chemical reaction network implementations: A pathway decomposition approach. Theoretical Computer Science765, 67-96.

Spolaor, S., Gribaudo, M., Iacono, M., Kadavy, T., Oplatková, Z. K., Mauri, G., ... & Viktorin, A. (2019). Towards human cell simulation. In High-Performance Modelling and Simulation for Big Data Applications (pp. 221-249). Springer, Cham.

Wang, Y., Cai, R., & Chen, C. (2019). The Nano–Bio Interactions of Nanomedicines: Understanding the Biochemical Driving Forces and Redox Reactions. Accounts of chemical research52(6), 1507-1518.

Woo, S. S., Kim, J., & Sarpeshkar, R. (2018). A digitally programmable cytomorphic chip for simulation of arbitrary biochemical reaction networks. IEEE transactions on biomedical circuits and systems12(2), 360-378.

Ziaaldini, M. M., Marzetti, E., Picca, A., & Murlasits, Z. (2017). Biochemical pathways of sarcopenia and their modulation by physical exercise: a narrative review. Frontiers in medicine4, 167.

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