The five quality management tools, techniques, or methods that will be used while planning a project are as follows:
Control charts: It shows mathematically determined higher and inferior bounds drawn on both sides of a practice average. It is mainly founded on the normal distribution idea of the numerical methods
Benchmarking: It entails comparing the actual project tactics with those of other projects to create ideas for the continuous improvement in the process and it offers a standard for the measurement of performance.
Cost of quality: This tool refers to the method that enables a company to define the extent to which its assets are used for actions that stop deprived quality, that assess the quality of goods and more.
Design of experiments: This method of quality management aids to recognize the most influential variables for the entire outcome of the process.
Cost-benefit analysis: The process should consider the benefits and costs so that there can be higher productivity and less rework for the processes (Annex & Directive, I. E, 2019).
In the project execution, the quality assurance auditor is responsible for reviewing the processes for checking on compliance with the policies of the company, its consistent practices, and measures to be real and effective or not. The auditor’s main motive is to collect the information associated with the existing status of the process and then implement the collected information to assess the process performance for the definite standards. The activities that are concerned with auditing the quality assurance are appraising the activities, the proceedings, courses, schemes, user familiarity, capabilities, and more.
The core responsibilities of auditors are conformance to plan, conformance to standards, governance and decision-making, independence and valid process, and maintenance of records. He gives his insight on the proposal of the project, the supremacy, organization, and highlights the risks linked with implementation. Moreover, he reviews the efficiency of the approvals after implementation (Abdullahi et al, 2019).
Quality assurance refers to the activities that ensure that a company is offering the top probable services and products to the consumers. Quality control refers to the software industrial procedure that confirms quality in a product or service. The key difference between both is as follows:
1. Quality assurance is intended at evading the defects while quality control is aimed at identifying and then resolves the faults.
2. Quality assurance can be done in the software development life series and quality control is initiated in the testing phase.
3. Quality assurance is a practical measure while quality control is a responsive measure
4. There must be the participation of the entire team in quality assurance whereas only the testing team is needed for quality control.
5. Firstly, quality assurance is performed and then quality control in the project.
6. The quality control activities are inspection, testing process while examples of quality assurance are process checklists, documentation, audit, and more.
(a) Continuous improvement: This concept in the company is related to improving the processes, products, and services. The approaches needed to achieve continuous improvement are PDCA (plan-do-check-act), kaizen, benchmarking, fishbone diagram (root-cause analysis), and more. This concept of continuous improvement enables the company to focus more on growth and creating a culture of improvement (Sundqvist, 2019).
(b) Total quality management: This concept can be defined as the company’s strategy for the long term profitability via more satisfied customers. In this approach, every member of the team contributes to the improvement in produces, processes, services, and culture. The main benefits of TQM are higher productivity, more competitive position, and more (Nouban & Abazid, 2017).
(c) Quality management system (QMS): This system refers to the range of activities that are responsible for controlling and directing the company for improving the efficiency and success of its performance constantly. The benefits of QMS are that it prevents mistakes; reduces costs, recycle waste, engaging staff, and more.
The factors that can affect the project quality are:
Time: Project quality is also affected by the delay in the project deliverance. The timely delivery of the project ensures high-quality projects.
Environment: It is a fact that a poor work environment can adversely affect the quality of the project along with reducing productivity.
Unskilled human resource: In case, the team members lack the knowledge for the project and they do not adhere to the norms of quality, the project may result in poor quality.
The quality control measures and tools that can improve the quality of the process are as follows:
Fishbone diagram: These are cause-effect diagram that usually defines the associations between the variables. In this diagram, the unwanted result is reflected as effect and the associated causes are reflected as leading to
Control charts: These are a pictorial representation of the data that shows the results of a process over time (Ahsan et al, 2018).
Check sheets: They aid to organize the data by category and are the easiest way to track the information.
Abdullahi, U., Bustani, S. A., Rotimi, F. E., & Hassan, A. (2019). Assessing Quality Management Practice in the Nigerian Construction Industry. Journal of Construction Business and Management, 3(2), 17-25.
Ahsan, M., Mashuri, M., Kuswanto, H., & Prastyo, D. D. (2018). Intrusion detection system using multivariate control chart Hotelling’s T2 based on PCA. Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol, 8(5), 1905-1911.
Annex, S. L., & Directive, I. E. C. (2019). Quality Management: Tools, Methods, and Standards. Measurement, 56, 62.
Nouban, F., & Abazid, M. (2017). An Overview of Total Quality Management in Construction Management. Academic Research International, 8(4), 68-74.
Sundqvist, E. (2019). The Role of Project Managers as Improvement Agents in Project-Based Organizations. Project Management Journal, 50(3), 376-390.
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