• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : BSC100
  • University : Murdoch University
  • Subject Name : Data Analysis

Data Analysis and Reporting

Background of The Study

The global demand of clean drinking water is significantly greater than the supply of water in many parts of the world. The statistics reveal that the demand outstrips the supply of water even in the areas which had adequate supply of water. Therefore, there is urgent need of achieving the balance between the emerging demand and existing supply of clean and good quality drinking water (Gomez & Teixeira, 2017). The increased human urbanization has unknowingly resulted in the development of areas in which contamination of rainwater and runoff flooding can take place. The researchers suggest the method of rainwater collection systems in order to make use of rainwater for the non potable uses in the house.

Some studies also suggest that rainwater can be used for ingestion along with the non potable uses like clothes flushing and toilet flushing (Khayan et al., 2019). In line with this finding, the households in various countries including Australia, Japan, Denmark and Germany have already installed systems and distribution lines for the collection of rainwater. The government is also supporting the installation of these systems and distribution lines because this strategy can help in coping up with the expansion of the demand for clean water which eventually helps in reducing the requirement of expansion of water supply infrastructure and storm water management systems. However, it has been evaluates through the study conducted by Lupi et al. (2019), that there exists lack of knowledge regarding the microbiological quality of the rainwater within the local governing agencies and public residing in the local communities.

Majority part of the literature even without the scientific evidence assumes the rainwater to be a safe source of water. However, few studies also point out the risks associated with the rainwater and its consumption. This section also points out to the fact that rainwater can prove to be harmful for the individuals living in both developed and developing countries (Nguyen et al., 2020). The presence of heavy metals and coliform bacteria in the rainwater can prove to be harmful for the health of human beings. It requires the development and setting of standard requirements and procedures in order check whether the water is suitable for the consumption or just for the non potable uses in the households.

Research Question

The study intends to investigate whether rainwater collected on rooftops can be used for human consumption or not.

Research Hypothesis

H0: The rainwater collected on rooftops can be used for human consumption.

HA: The rainwater collected on rooftops cannot be used for human consumption

Data Collection and Analysis Procedure

Primary data collection approach will be adopted in the current research study for investigating the usefulness of rainwater. The samples of rainwater collected from tanks on open air test roofs will be collected. The water will be collected only from those tanks that have metal gutters. The sample size of the study will be sixteen as the water will be collected from sixteen tanks.

In order to investigate the usefulness of the rainwater, the Colilert method will be adopted for testing the water collected from tanks. The Colilert method will help in finding out the concentrations of Zinc and Lead in the water. The concentration of these chemicals will be detected in water using a Perkin Elmer Spectrometer Unit.

Rationale for the approach adopted for data collection

The adoption of the primary collection technique will help in collecting first hand data. The first hand data will help in finding out an evidence for the quality of the rainwater collected from tanks on open air test roofs. The utilization of scientific methods like Colilert method will increase the quality and validity of the scientific evidence and other findings retrieved from the analysis conducted in the study (Senevirathna et al., 2019).

Analysis of the Data Collected

The methods of both inferential and descriptive statistical tools will be adopted in order to useful insights from the data collected. The summary statistics including mean, standard deviation and range will be used in order to draw insights from the data and evaluate the relationship between the variables.

Results

Concentration of Coliforms in Low Rain Condition

Total coliforms per 100 ml

Mean

1.31875

Standard Error

0.615170623

Median

0

Mode

0

Standard Deviation

2.460682493

Sample Variance

6.054958333

Kurtosis

2.420610557

Skewness

1.866331409

Range

7.4

Minimum

0

Maximum

7.4

Sum

21.1

Count

16

Concentration of Lead concentration when rains are low

Pb

Mean

21.375

Standard Error

2.42190524

Median

19.5

Mode

10

Standard Deviation

9.68762097

Sample Variance

93.85

Kurtosis

-0.8495163

Skewness

0.45901482

Range

30

Minimum

10

Maximum

40

Sum

342

Count

16

Concentration of Zinc concentration when rains are low

Zn

Mean

59.4375

Standard Error

5.96445635

Median

58.5

Mode

#N/A

Standard Deviation

23.8578254

Sample Variance

569.195833

Kurtosis

-1.0436414

Skewness

0.20757826

Range

77

Minimum

25

Maximum

102

Sum

951

Count

16

Concentration of Coliforms in High Rain Condition

 

Total coliforms

Mean

43.82

Standard Error

18.25765645

Median

7.4

Mode

0

Standard Deviation

70.71159937

Sample Variance

5000.130286

Kurtosis

4.936808705

Skewness

2.151387019

Range

252.9

Minimum

0

Maximum

252.9

Sum

657.3

Count

15

References

Gomez, Y. D., & Teixeira, L. G. (2017). Residential rainwater harvesting: Effects of incentive policies and water consumption over economic feasibility. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 127, 56-67.

Khayan, K., Heru Husodo, A., Astuti, I., Sudarmadji, S., & Sugandawaty Djohan, T. (2019). Rainwater as a Source of Drinking Water: Health Impacts and Rainwater Treatment. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2019.

Lupi, L., Bedmar, F., Puricelli, M., Marino, D., Aparicio, V. C., Wunderlin, D., & Miglioranza, K. S. (2019). Glyphosate runoff and its occurrence in rainwater and subsurface soil in the nearby area of agricultural fields in Argentina. Chemosphere, 225, 906-914.

Nguyen, N. D., Tran, T. L. H., Van Der Heiden Dion, D. A., Dinh, T., & Pham Dang Tri, N. (2020). The current state of domestic water consumption and the feasibility of implementing a rainwater harvesting system in the coastal zone of the Vietnamese Mekong delta: the case study of the Vinh Chau town, Soc Trang province. Tạp chí Khoa học và Công nghệ Việt Nam, (3C), 90.

Senevirathna, S. T. M. L. D., Ramzan, S., & Morgan, J. (2019). A sustainable and fully automated process to treat stored rainwater to meet drinking water quality guidelines. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 130, 190-196.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Data Analysis Assignment Help

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