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  • Subject Name : international political economy

Contemporary Issues in International Political Economy

Table of Contents

Question 1

Question 2

Question 3

Question 4

Part 1

Mind-map

Part 2

Reference list

International Political Economy - Question 1

While discussing the power realms it is to be mention that the idea of application of power is like X has power on Y to that kind of extent that They can get Y to do anything, which Y do not want to do (Ismail et al., 2018). In the Middle East a large scale protest was visible against the government of Bashar al-Assad. As an outcome the Syrian government sent troops, tankers to end the anti-government corruption, and it resulted in a civil war in 2011. In 2015, ISIS took a benefit on Syrian conflict to defeat the region of Syria.

After global governance emerged, the great powers of the world got the veto power in their hand and they started dominating the state of affairs from there on; and Syria was not any exception because Syria was a state of affair under the US and Russia (Ismail et al., 2018).

The great powers like China and Russia force Syria, to resign of Bashar al-Assad and killing of him. On the other hand US provided military training and resources while Russia also provided military and financial assistance to Syria which helped from the 2011 continuation of Syria tragedy. One of the fundamental causes for Syrian conflict is Western Meddling which was led by different great powers (Ismail et al., 2018).

International Political Economy - Question 2

Diplomacy was unsuccessful in resolving the Syrian tragedy of the Syrian people. After the starting of Syrian conflict the super power constantly used their veto powers on this state and henceforth caused millions of blood-shed. By 2018 Syria faced loads of tragic instances due to the conflict. A responsibility hails here, by the perpetrators to rest in peace this situation. As an outcome, United Nations had taken the resolution of Responsibility to Protect as a diplomatic mission for Syria to protect the community (Itani, 2016). But as a result the intensive diplomatic plan failed, because the diplomacy was not working in Syria.

The Arab League mediator not made any progress during the diplomacy was going on, The UN Security Council was unable to bring the country in to a peace determination table, they always rebels. Neither Russia nor the US was overcoming the deep disagreement on Syrian region. When Syria`s opposition group leader rejected to attend the peace talks in Russia. U.S. and

Russia had deterioration in their bilateral ties, and, when three Chinese Russian veto was imposed on Syria, it results in ending of the issue as said by UN Security Council. By these above mentioned behaviour diplomatic efforts of United Nations on Syrian conflict was unsuccessful (Itani, 2016).

International Political Economy - Question 3

When the protest of the Bashar al-Assad`s government was going on in Syria in the year 2011, millions of people were dying in the conflict the United Nations should have taken steps to end this disturbance (Akbarzadeh, and Saba, 2019). U.N. bodies’ like- Human Rights Council, General Assembly, tried in escalating the crisis of Syria. But United Nations Security Council who structured the great powers by five permanent country members and non-permanent country members was expected to support the ten temporary member countries to solve the intercontinental crisis before death occurred. Instead of that United Nations constantly supported Russia, U.S., China and they used their veto powers on Syria.

It was being observed by the Syrian situation that United Nations tried to secure the human rights of the citizens although failed. A U.N. peace keeping mission was the next attempt by U.N. which was also not a successful one (Akbarzadeh, and Saba, 2019). Security Council in 2013 passed resolution for Syria to surrender chemical weapons; it was also not at all successful. The General Assembly also adopted ways and called all the existing parties for support and to make peacefully solution of the crisis

International Political Economy - Question 4

Part 1

The article "How to do better" connotes the main concept on refugees or migrants. Every government should know and must have their state policy to control or to prevent refugees for causing the basis of tension, but unfortunately the governments are failing. Refugees or migrants belonging from developed countries; in reality are locked in an indeterminate state by state owned NGOs and having a meaningless life (Itani, 2016). A drapery of international law says that, refugees (a class of people who do not have their own shelter in their own state) deserves the protection. It does not say that the conventions, acts worldwide should rip up. It is only saying for a betterment act for those specific classes otherwise asylum and resettlement would emerge rapidly.

Although James Hathaway suggested that the convention fits well, only it need amendment or renovation and it implies that, recognition, protection for the refugees and compact relation between rich-poor so that the problems can be managed by available sources. For the starting of the refugee policy it does not mean to give them citizenship, it implies not to restrict them in returning to their home (Akbarzadeh, and Saba, 2019). It is very important for the Western countries to think about the refugee policy and to promote the interests of refugees and the communities hosting them.

Western politicians had thanked the refugee hosting countries for their attitude towards them. These refugee hosting countries do not even allow these refugees to work or to move freely. The World Bank has also changed the rule for aiding those countries who are facing refugee economic burden. Preparation should be taken for countries like Jordan, Lebanon to deal with the cohesion. An expanded global fund by rich countries would aid such situation. The International organization could help for the global migration in limited sphere, as it is prone to inertia (Tinghög et al., 2017). The problem can only be solved and managed, if every segment of the society cooperates and solve the problem with the help of concerning government.

Mind-map

The main issues derive from this content are as follows:

  • It connotes the main concept on refugees or migrants.
  • State policy to control or to prevent refugees for causing the basis of tension
  • Refugees or migrants are locked in an indeterminate state and having meaning- less life.
  • International law says that, refugees deserve protection.
  • James Hathaway suggested for reconstruction of the convention, acts.
  • The Western countries should think about the refugee policy and to promote the interests of refugees.
  • Global funding.
  • The International organization could help for the global migration
  • New approach to be implemented by governments for the refugees.
  • Policy makers can manage the situation certainly.

The first issue says about the topic "How to do better". It is mainly regarding the refugees or migrants who are lacking of shelter. They do not have a proper living place anywhere with their family. They are about to roam here and there in search of food, shelter, clothes, working etc. The state also does not want to take responsibility of them. After the Syrian conflict these migrants or refugees increased in number, along with in Lebanon, Jordan. Secondly, it says about the state policy to control or to prevent refugees.

Actually the refugees have become a kind of tension on the state governments. They cannot even take the steps to discriminate them or to provide them with proper shelter, citizenship (Tinghög et al., 2017). It is the duty of state government to look after these refugees, their daily needs and not to take them as a tension or burden of state. The government should take appropriate steps to control and to prevent refugees not to roam cross borders, to engage them in various occupations, provide them ample shelter for their livelihood.

Third issue is concerning on refugees or migrants belonging from developed countries; in reality are locked in an indeterminate state by state owned NGOs and having a meaningless life. It implies that they are being the burden on government so that the state has taken steps by the help of NGOs and locked them in between of four pillars (Aras, and Duman, 2019). They are construing a meaningless life. Only for the purpose of survival, they are alive. Government does not aid them to make them independent so that they can perform in their livelihood. Fourthly, international law claims that these refugees need ample protection and for them new lawful acts must be implemented. Fifthly, James Hathaway says that no need of new law or acts, the old one is to be modifies by the government will serve the purpose of refugees.

Sixthly, Western countries should think about the refugee policy and to promote the interests of refugees. They should lay the emphasis on the interest of refugees so they can survive well. Not by the way of restricting them to move around or to work (Aras, and Duman, 2019). The developing countries must work on these.

Next it is the leading its impacts on global funding. Yes, by global funding the problem of refugees can be demolished. Global funding should be done by rich developed countries to aid these poor refugees. The International Organization could help for the global migration by funding and implementing certain laws, acts in favor of them. New approaches have to be implemented by the concerned government so that the refugees can live peacefully in their own nation, with ample opportunities of life (Aras, and Duman, 2019). Government should look after that how they can get citizenship or how they can get back to their home. Lastly the refugees flow to be controlled by state not by policy makers. But policymakers could help the state by making certain policies to manage the refugees, migrants within the territory.

Part 2

(a)

As the Syrian crisis have gone through far and devastated many lives. The Syrian refugee problem is also a part of the Syrian crisis, rather can be said Syrian civil war arose the problem of migrants and refugees of their own state (Robichaud, 2018). Some solutions can be implemented to get rid of the solution.

1. As the traditional approach would not work here, that is why the UN, state government should implement new solutions so that the refugees can live.

2. These refugees should be given proper shelter for living and occupation for their family as well. It will save those lives.

3. The refugees should not be restricted to move and lock them anywhere; they should get freedom of life, expressions.

4. Increasing the self-reliance of these Syrian refugees by providing them work permit in cross border countries (Robichaud, 2018).

5. Turkish government making its ways to serve these refugees and providing the age group from fifteen to sixty four age group work opportunities. Although the bunch of refugees arrived is really misbalancing the situation of government to work.

6. An solution can be taken EU, they can offer to Turkey trading rebates or concessions which is tied to Syrians formal employment. These would be an increasingly innovative and popular policy squabble that due to pre-empting derivative and burden-sharing movements, Hosting- countries had bulks of refugees who could grant betterment access for exports.

These could help the refugees’ self-reliance, economic growth, a good livelihood, and the different resilience plans programs, implemented by UN would focus primarily on improving the condition of refugees (Robichaud, 2018). By this methods, policies they will be able to lead a normal livelihood like other citizens around.

(b)

The inhabitants of Syria after the Syria conflict started they became homeless, food less, and move around here and there (Byman, and Speakman, 2016). These people are termed as Syrian refugees and these refugees facing a problem from the very beginning of the conflict. The crisis of these Syrian residents turning into refugees was not a blissful occurrence happening. These refugees in search of shelter flee mostly in Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan etc.

These Syrian refugees now have become a global problem, as because this large group of peoples is displaced (Byman, and Speakman, 2016). They do not possess right of citizenship. Even they do not have right of expression, freedom of occupation, living etc. They have been grouped and treated as outsiders in many of the countries. As these people in their critical situation flee away to other regions for living, it create a distress for those countries where they are inhabiting now.

In many countries they have fled, therefore it is creating crisis for many of the governments globally to feed them, to provide them shelter and ample work permit. Turkey government is trying a lot to help those fled inhabitants by providing those works opportunities, shelter and food for living. These refugees are facing limited access to labor markets, public goods and commodities, resources also. The NGOs of different countries are failing to aid them on humanitarian grounds as the state are failing to aid too (Byman, and Speakman, 2016). Some of the global solutions to be opted in this crisis are:

  • Letting the refugees to stay not to be hatred them
  • Resettlement
  • Saving their lives
  • Aiding them to cross border shelter, with or without travel documents
  • Stop racism against them
  • Setting up strong rigid system for refugees help.
  • Providing the refugees asylum right.
  • Humanitarian behaviour for them
  • Social integrity, bonding with them without any diversification.
  • Access to labour markets, local goods and commodities etc.

Reference list for International Political Economy

Akbarzadeh, S. and Saba, A., 2019. UN paralysis over Syria: the responsibility to protect or regime change?. International Politics, 56(4), pp.536-550.

Aras, B. and Duman, Y., 2019. I/NGOs’ assistance to Syrian refugees in Turkey: Opportunities and challenges. Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, 21(4), pp.478-491.

Byman, D. and Speakman, S., 2016. The Syrian refugee crisis: Bad and worse options. The Washington Quarterly, 39(2), pp.45-60.

Ismail, M.B., Rafei, R., Dabboussi, F. and Hamze, M., 2018. Tuberculosis, war, and refugees: spotlight on the Syrian humanitarian crisis. PLoS pathogens, 14(6).

Itani, F., 2016. The Origins and Consequences of US Nonintervention in Syria. Current History, 115(785), p.337.

Robichaud, D., 2018. Syrian Refugees in Canada: A Security Issue? A Qualitative Content Analysis of the Conservative Party Rhetoric.

Tinghög, P., Malm, A., Arwidson, C., Sigvardsdotter, E., Lundin, A. and Saboonchi, F., 2017. Prevalence of mental ill health, traumas and postmigration stress among refugees from Syria resettled in Sweden after 2011: a population-based survey. BMJ open, 7(12), p.e018899.

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