Human skin is made up of three essential layers, namely, epidermis, dermis, and submucosal tissues. The epidermal layer of the skin is subjected to various kinds of abiotic and biotic stresses of the environment and results in aging. Aging is a complex process that is associated with genetic factors, UV light exposure, gravity, reactive oxygen species generation, etc. that causes wrinkles. The existing research provides evidence that aging is also associated with wound repair. Several traditional plant extracts have been used for the purpose of skin protection and healing. Piper cambodianum is a plant with congruent properties and has been traditionally found in Vietnam. The impact of the plant on curing wounds, protection from UV light, and aging are yet to be scientifically investigated.
Several plants that are known to possess “antioxidant” properties are often associated with slowing the aging process by acting on the reactive oxygen species. In light of the same, this research aims to perform in-vivo and in-vitro impact of Piper cambodianum extract on the process of aging.
The plant stem and leaf extract was collected and dissolved in methanol and was studied using western blotting. Further analysis was also conducted using real time PCR reaction. Flow cytometry was also conducted in conjunction with the cell-wound healing assays. The anti-aging effect of the plant extract was tested on the mouse and the normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells. Cell migration assay was done to test the cell wound healing. Analysis of the results was done using an unpaired t-test via SPSS v.12.Statistical values with P <0.05 were considered to be significant values and P <0.01 as highly significant in comparison to the controls.
The plant extract demonstrated anti-aging activity in both in-vitro and in-vivo analysis. The western blot analysis of the human dermal fibroblasts demonstrated a dosage-dependent impact on the matrix genes controlling elastin, collagen, and hyaluronan synthase-2 production. The enhanced ECM expression in the NHDF cells was observed that were treated with the plant extract. Further, downregulation of the gene metalloproteinase-1 that is identified as an “aging gene” was also observed. The application of Piper cambodianum extract also resulted in the reduction in the production of reactive oxygen species in the cells that were irradiated using ultraviolet light in a dose-dependent manner. The extract application on cells that were UV irradiated also demonstrated that TNFR1 and EGFR protein expression was also downregulated in a dose-dependent manner in the cells that were treated with plant extract. In-vivo, the extract also demonstrated a positive impact on the process of wound healing in mice by controlling the fibroblast cells.
This study establishes that Piper cambodianum extract possesses antiaging as well as wound healing properties. Therefore, it can be concluded that Piper cambodianum extract can be used for its therapeutic properties for wound healing and anti-aging properties.
Piper cambodianum extract, reactive oxygen species, wound healing, dermal fibroblasts, antiaging.
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