Information Systems in Organisations

Executive Summary of The Impact of Information Systems

Information systems have always had major impact on the jobs and the workforce. No doubt, these advancements have brought in many benefits to the workplace like availability of real time data, better and more effective communication, reduction in errors, increase in productivity, and better security.

Education sector is one of the major sectors that provide employment to a large number of people including teachers, assistant teachers, administrators, lab technicians, researchers, event coordinators, and trainers. In addition to these direct jobs, this sector produces manpower for all other sectors of the industry. Education sector is the one that produces lawyers, doctors, engineers, technicians, teachers, professionals, business executives, leaders, and bureaucrats.

The advancements in Information systems have led to some serious problems. Open access to loads of data may also result in breach of important and personal information. This breach may lead to criminal activities, adversaries taking advantage and digital media manipulation. IS also causes job insecurities among the workforce since many of the tasks, today, are being performed remotely using the internet and artificial intelligence.

Table of Contents

Executive Summary.

Introduction..

Choice of Industry.

The Future Jobs.

Impact of IS.

Positive and Negative Impacts of the Change.

Conclusion..

References.

Introduction to The Impact of Information Systems

The advancement in technology is bringing about very significant changes in the way businesses are run. The way people do their jobs too has changed over time because of the advent of new information systems (IS). Information about almost everything is available on the click of a button these days and all the professionals, today, have access to every kind of information and data. Further, with the introduction of mobility, people are attached to the information sources 24x7. The technological advancements have both positive and negative effects on the job market. On one hand, people get access to information and data that makes things easier and on the other hand, a large number of jobs are going away. Most of the manufacturing units today have deployed machines in place of human beings (Gera and Singh, 2019).

Humans are increasingly becoming redundant in the industry since most of the physical tasks can be performed by computers. Delivery and driving jobs too are going to disappear as soon as the vehicles become automated.

Choice of Industry

For the present report, I have selected the education sector and I would be discussing the impact of Information Systems on this sector. I have particularly chosen this sector because it is one of the most important sectors and it provides basis and workforce to all other sectors of the industry. IS has had very serious impact on the education sector. In fact, the advancements in IS have absolutely changed the face of this sector. It becomes very important to study the impact of the advent of IS and the constant advancements in the field in the education sector because, as mentioned earlier, all the professionals, executives, entrepreneurs, scientists, academicians and leaders are produced and created through education only. So, any positive or negative impact of IS on this sector would certainly have the bearing on all other fields and sectors of the industry.

The Future Jobs

Education sector is one of the major sectors that provide employment to a large number of people including teachers, assistant teachers, administrators, lab technicians, researchers, event coordinators, and trainers. In addition to these direct jobs, this sector produces manpower for all other sectors of the industry. Education sector is the one that produces lawyers, doctors, engineers, technicians, teachers, professionals, business executives, leaders, and bureaucrats. With the increase in the number of students and subsequent increase in the number of professional and business colleges, the number of jobs in the education sector too have increased. The demand for technically skilled staff has opened up job opportunities for technically sound professionals but overall, these technological advancements are leading to a job crunch in this sector. Technologies like Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning are making the people working in this sector redundant. Moreover, the recent transition into using digital platforms to conduct classes is also leading to job crunch for teachers.

Impact of IS

The impact of IS has been both positive and negative, in the field of education. The professors, the supporting staff, the researchers, and the students all have access to loads of data and information about different fields of study. It helps all of them understand the concepts and theories in a more efficient way. The invention of projectors, computers, clouds, and other gadgets have made teaching more effective and comprehensive. It’s easier to explain the concepts today since the teachers can show pictures, videos, and practical implementation of the concepts in the class itself. The digital platforms make it possible for both the teachers and the students to participate in the classes virtually, in case physical participation is not possible. Seminars, conferences, symposiums, workshops can be easily conducted online without requiring physical presence of the participants. Students have access to the video lectures of top professors and authors from any part of the world. All the information about almost all the subjects is available just on the click of a button. The introduction of Artificial Intelligence has indeed even removed the need of clicking a button. It’s all voice controlled. Advancements in Information Systems have serious bearing on the jobs both in terms of job creation and loss of jobs (Ikedinachi et. Al., 2019).

Positive and Negative Impacts of the Change

The new advancements in the Information System has brought in both positive and negative impact on the jobs in this sector. The need for technically skilled people to handle technology in the educational institutions increased the intake of the skilled workforce in the education sector. On the other hand, since data compilation and collection, and other filing activities are easily done by the computers today, the number of jobs in these areas are gradually decreasing. The administrative and HR departments in the educational institutions require lesser number of employees leading to fewer job opportunities.

Education was, no doubt, going to be completely digital in some time but the pandemic COVID-19 forced it to go digital overnight. The pandemic further augmented the use of IS in the education sector. The teachers and the students were suddenly forced into taking to the online mode. Physical classes were completely replaced by online classes. Teachers and the students were compelled to get to terms with the latest technology overnight. The delivery transition did pose a number of problems, but gradually all the stakeholders did come to terms with the new development. The teachers trained themselves in using online portals to conduct classes and deliver content and information to the students. However, the new mode of teaching poses a serious threat to jobs in the education for teachers and other staff members. For the regular physical classes in colleges, for every 40-60 students, one teacher and an assistant teacher were required. Nevertheless, in the online classes, one facilitator is enough to conduct a class of even 200-250 students, though there is a debate going on about the efficacy of these classes.

Education is a labour-intensive industry which provides jobs in various areas including providing teacher professional development or driving and maintaining school buses etc. Being a labour-intensive industry, this sector also has large potential for gains from a technology-labour substitution.

The McKinsey report (Table 1 in Appendix) presents jobs in education sector. The x-axis represents the share of each occupation’s task that is judged to be automatable; the y-axis represents current U.S. employment figures. Most of the education jobs are on the left-hand side of the scatterplot, representing low levels of automation potential – almost all occupations are less than 20 percent automatable. The two education occupations with more significant automation potential are both library jobs, which currently employ relatively few workers.

Until recently it was a general belief that most of the core education jobs were fairly well insulated from replacement by technology but the recent developments and the sudden transition from the brick and mortar classrooms to digital classrooms have shattered this belief. Even the core jobs in the education industry are not secure and might be taken over by technology very soon.

According to the article ‘How technology will change the demand for teachers’ by Michael Hansel, “there are various jobs that function to complement educational institutions,... In general, these jobs are very vulnerable to automation pressures. These are jobs like bus drivers (67 percent automatable), food preparers (87 percent), security guards (84 percent), janitors (66 percent), receptionists (95 percent) and accounting and reporting clerks (98 percent)” (Hansel, 2016). The figures mentioned above are based on the automation estimated from Frey and Osborne, 2017.

Due to the advancements in IS, the educational institutions have started hiring far fewer supporting staff to complement the mission of the schools and colleges. Looking at the current scenario, it seems quite reasonable to expect that most of the tasks in an educational institution are going to be automated overtime including the tasks like maintaining attendance, grade reporting, class scheduling, exam preparation and evaluation. Automation of these tasks will severely cut down the number of jobs in the education sector.

Conclusion on The Impact of Information Systems

Advancements in information system is a continuous phenomenon. As science progresses, there will be new inventions and discoveries. No doubt, these technological advancements make the lives of the people easier. On the professional front too, these advancements help the employees become more efficient and quick. New technologies and gadgets help the professionals perform their tasks with more accuracy and efficiency. Data sciences have made it a lot easier to collect, compile, store, analyse and interpret data. 24x7 access to information helps the teachers and students in teaching and learning the concepts in a better way. However, these advancements have negative impact too on the jobs in this particular sector. Automation of various departments in the educational institutions make people redundant.

References for The Impact of Information Systems

Hansel, Michael. “How technology will change the demand for teachers,” Brown Centre Chalkboard, Brookings. January 26, 2016. Accessed on September 24, 2019. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2016/01/26/how-technology-will-change-the-demand-for-teachers/

Gera, I., & Singh, S. (2019). A Critique of Economic Literature on Technology and Fourth Industrial Revolution: Employment and the Nature of Jobs. The Indian Journal of Labour Economics62(4), 715-729.

Ikedinachi, A. P., Misra, S., Assibong, P. A., Olu-Owolabi, E. F., Maskeliūnas, R., & Damasevicius, R. (2019). Artificial intelligence, smart classrooms and online education in the 21st century: Implications for human development. Journal of Cases on Information Technology (JCIT)21(3), 66-79.

Khan, M. A., Md Yusoff, R., Hussain, A., & Binti Ismail, F. (2019). The mediating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship of HR practices and employee job performance: Empirical evidence from higher education sector. International Journal of Organizational Leadership8, 78-94.

SHARMA, P., & VIJ, S. UNIVERSITIES FOR THE FUTURE JOBS AND HUMAN EXCELLENCE. REIMAGINING INDIAN UNIVERSITIES, 325.

Panigrahi, C. M. A. (2020). Use of Artificial Intelligence in Education. Management Accountant55, 64-67.

Frey, C. B., & Osborne, M. A. (2017). The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerisation?. Technological forecasting and social change114, 254-280.

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