• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : BUS80003
  • University :
  • Subject Name : Research methodology

BUS80003 - Research Methodology

Introduction

Culture is a collective product, encompassing measures and antiques. It is delivered over extensive rigidity of time by different people from different nations (Sit, Mak & Neill, 2017). Culture likewise compels and authorizes social movement. On the other hand, management is the course of situating and attaining objectives efficiently and proficiently. So, cross-cultural management refers to a comprehensive management strategy to the ethos of other nations, which have diverse human discrimination, characteristic social values, and diverse stages of ethos in their business culture (Kim & Stepchenkova, 2017). The purpose behind managing the cross-cultural diversity in the organizations is to design a feasible workplace atmosphere for every employee (Cohen & Kassis-Henderson, 2017). To understand the cross-cultural management problem, a noteworthy relationship among typical executive behaviours and performance for the emigrants is required to be researched. With an expanding number of remote ventures working throughout the world, diverse administration is very important (Ollier-Malaterre & Foucreault, 2017). Furthermore, this causes an association to turn out to be increasingly compelling and productive in diverse culture business circumstances. In this way, it helps in maximising the association's worldwide acquaintance (Cho & Kim, 2017). This worldwide acquaintance could set up a decent commercial relationship and creating an upper hand in the worldwide marketable centre for the organization. 

Furthermore, understanding the cross-cultural diversity at workplace will increase the productivity of employees (Smith & Peterson, 2017). The research proposal discusses the behaviour of employees from diverse cultures in an organization and implications to solve them. Presently, only a few nations have executed an arrangement of cultural diversification by welcoming specialists from various social foundations and using strategies for managing the discrimination due to race, religion, and cultural beliefs in the workplace environments. Subsequently, an integrative hypotheses model on intercultural behaviour of employees has also been discussed in this research work. This will upgrade the mindfulness, knowledge, open-disapproved of perspectives, and aptitudes in managing cultural diversity skilfully. Understanding the particular and situational aspects of cross-cultural and intergroup correspondence can depict a clear picture of cultural diversity, helping migrants and co-culture individuals to communicate properly, adequately, and with flexibility (Menard, Warkentin, & Lowry, 2018). However, despite the significance of both individual-and gathering level impacts, there is limited staggered hypothesis and examination about open conduct and performance in culturally diverse teams at workplace. This research work distinguishes both individual and group impacts of cross-culture diversity on organization atmosphere and performance consequences. Moreover, it also adds to inner collaboration by changing the work environment into a location of education, preparation of new thoughts and social testing, and hierarchical procedures for the more prominent upper hand of the organization (Smith & Peterson, 2017).

Literature review

Cultural diversity is viewed as a precise and arranged duty of associations to select, hold, reward, and advance diverse representatives across the world. In solid terms, cross-cultural management in the organization's environment is practiced through the concurrence of employees from various foundations (Ward & Ravlin, 2017). Therefore, the management of cross-cultural differences in an organization entails culture wherein each worker can proceed with his profession unobstructed by sexual orientation, beliefs, race, culture, nationality, color, or religion. Furthermore, the foundation requires setting up the methods for diverse staff to be completely incorporated in an impartial working environment where no gathering is favored over another (Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2018). Subsequently, organization directors need to comprehend, foresee, and deal with the entrancing idea of the various workforce. As indicated by Ward & Ravlin (2017), there is a need of setting up a decent blend between the various societies in business, because each signal, each word is an adage that cannot be tested and we should place them in a social setting. 

On the off chance that the cross-cultural management is overseen, it may be the foundation of an undesirable impression as numerous individuals would feel undermined by employing with individuals of diverse age, social foundations, or gender. Accordingly, this insecurity can destructively disturb the speaking profitability of individuals at workplace. In this way, it is basic for a chief to recognize the social explicitness of a gathering to comprehend the best approach in responding and taking care of the issues an organization faces. Empowering employees with diverse cultural backgrounds in associations may animate inventiveness, improve the management and access to the particular abilities of minorities (Ollier-Malaterre & Foucreault, 2017). This will likewise guarantee value in work/governmental policy regarding minorities in society and add to the human privileges of the obvious minorities in the nation. Furthermore, a cross-cultural workforce with its aggregate insight and information can create more excellent products to address client issues. Globalization, seaward redistributing, supply chains, and worldwide division of work have driven the present business organizations to internationalize their exercises. Therefore, cultural diversity has become a significant issue in dealing with contemporary overall working environments. 

Moreover, it has become a need for directors to take this test by completely using the potential capacities of a multi-social workforce to accomplish authoritative adequacy (Salgado & Bastida, 2017). Presently, only a few nations have executed an arrangement of cultural diversification by welcoming specialists from various social foundations and using strategies for managing the race, religion, and cultural beliefs in the workplace environments. In this manner, the work markets of developed and developing nations are getting progressively multicultural and multi-ethnic (Ollier-Malaterre & Foucreault, 2017). Furthermore, cultural management matter is particularly related subject of human science or political theory field. The administrative ramifications of culturally diverse administration gave off an impression of being a subsequent test for al global firms when they are augmenting their organizations because of the quick pace of globalization. The cross-cultural theory model used for this research, demonstrates how the behaviour of employees affect the communication at workplace and what are its impacts (Menard, Warkentin, & Lowry, 2018). Furthermore, it also depicts the situational, group and individual differences which have diverse outcomes due to cross-culture in an organization.

Figure 1: Cross-cultural theory model

[Source: Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2018]

The theory contended that for appropriate behaviour of employees in a cross-cultural workplace, should comprise both interpersonal outcomes and their tasks (Menard, Warkentin, & Lowry, 2018). The outcomes related to task include having correct decision-making skills, productivity of work, and understanding among individuals so that they can work together. For the current research work outcomes has been idealized as satisfaction of an employee for his job. Moreover, it is an evaluation method for measuring the productivity and quality of work delivered by the employees. Subsequently, different ways of communication of individuals in a cross-cultural workplace affects the organizational outcomes (Miao, Humphrey, & Qian,2018). The model also demonstrates the behaviour of employees that affects cross-cultural management in an organization. They are conflicts, respect, effective decision-making, and cooperation at workplace. These behaviours are termed here as interaction climate, which is defined as the general behaviour of the employees when interacting with individuals of diverse culture and principles. 

Cross-cultural management is likewise the significance of age progression. Furthermore, it constructs the items recognized and operated by individuals from many human races, cultures, and consuetudes. So, a noteworthy connection between characteristic decision-making behaviors and recitals for the emigrants required to be deliberated in-depth (Cohen & Kassis-Henderson, 2017). Also, more issues that affect culturally varied administration ought to be concentrated profoundly. Gelfand (2017) demonstrates demographic shreds of evidence of cross-cultural management. A practical and theoretical aspect of culturally diverse administration of different countries has also been discussed using this model. The theory model used also reflects diverse restrictions, for example, convictions, attitudes, and assessments of individuals which affect the temperament and philosophy of the persons and culture (Smith & Peterson, 2017). Training of social and racial perspectives have carried about intriguing bits of information that are of believable significance in managing cross-cultural communication. 

The hypothesis incorporates a few information factors: situational highlights, individual level issues, and gathering level elements. Situational highlights are the bigger logical elements that shape a specific workgroup's communications, including a past filled with uncertain clash, team equalization, and status of individuals. Sit, Mak & Neill (2017) argued that these highlights either help or prevent the formation of a typical  workplace that encourages cooperating. For instance, having a past filled with uncertain clash between ethnic gatherings in the public arena everywhere, may make it tough for workgroup individuals from the distinctive ethnic gatherings to work adequately on the job that needs to be done. Furthermore, situational highlights can be utilized in a post hoc way to support decrypt the discoveries of the current investigation with regards to the surviving literature (Miao, Humphrey, & Qian,2018). The second factor is singular contrasts among workgroup members. These singular variables are situated in culture and incorporate such factors as self-translations and facial expressions. Hence, singular variables are illustrative of profound level cross-culture and are spotlight on clarifying contrasts in open conduct of individuals instead of the aggregate conduct.

The last information factor is the gathering level. Gathering structure is the decent variety of the whole team, concentrating on factors like ethnicity and sexual orientation. Moreover, gathering factor is a surface-level factor of cross-cultural variety and assists in clarifying contrasts in team correspondence practices and results. Furthermore, cultural values outbreak all territories of the human lifespan and impact the administration of individuals in several social orders (Ward & Ravlin, 2017). All societies vary from frequent things, for example, ethnicity, social class, and gender. Changing social qualities affect the exercises that a director needs to follow. Variations in conventional sexual orientation, occupations and new lifestyles, for model change and interest rates in the share market and how laborers are propelled and overseen in the work environment. Cross-cultural administration is a surge of the board that underlines the procedures and arrangements including the administration of laborers originating from differing social foundations (Cohen & Kassis-Henderson, 2017). 

It additionally encourages the usage of the board undertakings by directing the effect of social contrasts. While interfacing with individuals in an intercultural business circumstance, it is critical to reconceptualise one's social personality to comprehend others' moods. Cho & Kim (2017) portrays culture as a compelling power in throwing one's character. Various societies have various inclinations about people and gatherings. A few societies favor the person over gathering though others give more significance to the gathering instead of the individual. However, people speaking to high setting society have non-verbal conduct. They rely more on signs and images and non-verbal communication (Gelfand, 2017). 

Purpose and hypothesis

Based on the literature review and empirical findings linked with the behaviour of employees in a cross-cultural workplace, following hyptheses have been postulated:

H1: Interdependency of team members on each other, brings out better outcomes from teamwork in an organization.

H2: Better is the behaviour of employees at their workplace better outcomes are generated.

H3: Employees are satisfied with their job roles.

H4: Less diverse is the organizational culture, lower is the performance level of teams.

H5: Higher is the interaction between the diverse culture employees, more is the job satisfaction and comfortability at workplace. 

People with free self-understandings see themselves fit for communicating and associating with inward feelings and drives, that advance their objectives. Miao, Humphrey, & Qian (2018) detailed that the more autonomous gathering individuals are, the almost certain they were during discussion and use serious clash systems. Interestingly, more diverse are the team members in a team, there is more probability of using agreeable clash strategies. Additionally, several scientists have contended that behaviour is a valuable system to clarify correspondence conduct in cross-cultural work environment. Behaviour of an individual alludes to a proclaimed sensitivity of great societal self-esteem as well as anticipated other-worth in an open circumstance. It is a group of character and communal based matters related with esteem, respect, position, notoriety, plausibility, skill, devotion, trust, social responsibility, and assurance issues. Moreover, there are three kinds of behaviour concerns: self confidence, or worry for one's own personality, worry for other's personality; and shared behaviour, or worry for the relationship. 

Consequently, other-face concern and shared face concern have steady examples and are treated as exchangeable in the hypotheses model. Subsequently, heterogeneity has normally been characterized as far as ethnic assorted variety. Sit, Mak & Neill, (2017) recommends that ethnically heterogeneous gatherings experience more collaboration and result trouble than homogeneous gatherings during introductory communications. These challenges can ne identified with restrained support and power clashes. Notwithstanding the effect of creation on connection atmosphere, the gathering's communication influences team outcomes. In particular, positive gathering correspondence brings about positive assignment and social results. The gathering's structure likely has differential effects for individuals from the groups. That is, cross-cultural diversity affects a few individuals yet not others. For example, the ethnic decent variety of a gathering may negatively affect members' attachment to the gathering for certain individuals.

Method

The assortment of the research method is based on the type of research philosophy which will be considered in the research work. Research method is a more comprehensive plan and procedure which provides considerable insight for the particular research areas. The research method is categorized into two different types which include method for data gathering and statistics analysis. The three significant study approaches include inductive, logical and abductive study approaches (Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2018). Each type of research approach is considered in different kinds of research. This research work will inculcate the use of logical approach for information gathering and statistics analysis. Deductive method is selected when the information will be taken from all-purpose point of view to a precise point of view. This method is most suitable here depending on the information collection and statistics analysis strategies. The research survey will be conducted based up on the non-probability sampling of data in a Multinational Company in Australia. The data will be collected in the form of questionnaires from the employees of diverse culture. The questions will be related to the behaviour, and adaptability of the employees who work with employees from different countries (Green & Salkind, 2016). After collecting the data from the employees, data analysis will be done. Statistics analysis is the most substantial step to entice conclusions from the collected information. This phase involves examination of the information which is poised for the purpose of satisfying the investigation goals and purposes. Furthermore, it has been found that the type of statistics analysis technique chosen for the investigation work describes the pattern of data and way of the findings. Statistics analysis is measured as a qualitative means that creates the yield in statistical manner. This research work will comprise the usage of SPSS analysis so that the information can be examined in the most effective and well-organized manner. SPSS is statistical set for communal disciplines which will be done through software system (Green & Salkind, 2016). 

Limitations

Some hypothesis has been made, and new data analysis method has been used based on the previous research work on the research topic. As the participants of the data analysis method will be from different cultures, the questionnaires might affect their sentiments and beliefs. Focusing on the outcome of the research, this limitation can reduce the scope of the research. Subsequently, psychological behaviour of individuals can also affect the outcome of SPSS analysis method. Furthermore, this survey is a non-probability survey; so, it is not proficient of recognizing the exact estimated numbers for the survey. The focus of research is on the behaviour of employees in a cross-cultural organization. Different researchers and organizations might contain diverse results for the research. 

References

Adler, N. J., &Aycan, Z. (2018). Cross-cultural interaction: what we know and what we need to know. Adler, 5.

Bartel-Radic, A., &Giannelloni, J. L. (2017). A renewed perspective on the measurement of cross-cultural competence: An approach through personality traits and cross-cultural knowledge. European Management Journal, 35(5), 632-644.

Barker, G. G. (2017). Acculturation and bicultural integration in organizations: Conditions, contexts, and challenges. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 17(3), 281-304.

Cameron, K. (2017). Cross-cultural research and positive organizational scholarship. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 7(9), 229-232.

Chatzipanagiotou, K., Christodoulides, G., &Veloutsou, C. (2019). Managing the consumer-based brand equity process: A cross-cultural perspective. International Business Review, 28(2), 328-343.

Cho, M., & Kim, G. (2017). A cross-cultural comparative analysis of crowdfunding projects in the United States and South Korea. Computers in Human Behavior, 72, 312-320.

Cohen, L., &Kassis-Henderson, J. (2017). Revisiting culture and language in global management teams: Toward a multilingual turn. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 17(1), 7-22.

Gelfand, M. J., Aycan, Z., Erez, M., & Leung, K. (2017). Cross-cultural industrial organizational psychology and organizational behavior: A hundred-year journey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 514.

Green, S. B. & Salkind, N. J. (2016). Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh, books a la carte.   England: Pearson. 

Kim, H., &Stepchenkova, S. (2017). Understanding destination personality through visitors' experience: A cross-cultural perspective. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 6(4), 416-425.

Lee, P. Y., Li, C. S. J., & Wu, M. L. (2018). The roles of cross-cultural adjustment and social capital formation in the dynamic capabilities development of multiunit organizations. Asia Pacific Management Review, 23(1), 20-29.

Mead, R., & Jones, C. J. (2017). Cross‐Cultural Communication. The Blackwell Handbook of Cross‐Cultural Management, 283-291.

Menard, P., Warkentin, M., & Lowry, P. B. (2018). The impact of collectivism and psychological ownership on protection motivation: A cross-cultural examination. Computers & Security, 75, 147-166.

Miao, C., Humphrey, R. H., & Qian, S. (2018). A cross-cultural meta-analysis of how leader emotional intelligence influences subordinate task performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of World Business, 53(4), 463-474.

Ollier-Malaterre, A., &Foucreault, A. (2017). Cross-national work-life research: Cultural and structural impacts for individuals and organizations. Journal of Management, 43(1), 111-136.

Salgado, J. F., &Bastida, M. (2017). Predicting expatriate effectiveness: The role of personality, cross‐cultural adjustment, and organizational support. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 25(3), 267-275.

Sit, A., Mak, A. S., & Neill, J. T. (2017). Does cross-cultural training in tertiary education enhance cross-cultural adjustment? A systematic review. International journal of intercultural relations, 57, 1-18.

Smith, P. B., & Peterson, M. F. (2017). Cross‐cultural leadership. The Blackwell Handbook of Cross‐Cultural Management, 217-235.

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